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Water 2018, 10(4), 432; doi:10.3390/w10040432

A Multiple-Iterated Dual Control Model for Groundwater Exploitation and Water Level Based on the Optimal Allocation Model of Water Resources

1
Department of Water Resources, China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research, Beijing 100038, China
2
College of Hydrology and Water Resources, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, China
3
State Key Laboratory of Simulation and Regulation of Water Cycle in River Basin, China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research, Beijing 100038, China
4
Department of Hydraulic Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
5
Changchun Institute of Urban Planning and Design, Changchun 130000, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 January 2018 / Revised: 16 March 2018 / Accepted: 29 March 2018 / Published: 5 April 2018
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Abstract

In order to mitigate environmental and ecological impacts resulting from groundwater overexploitation, we developed a multiple-iterated dual control model consisting of four modules for groundwater exploitation and water level. First, a water resources allocation model integrating calculation module of groundwater allowable withdrawal was built to predict future groundwater recharge and discharge. Then, the results were input into groundwater numerical model to simulate water levels. Groundwater exploitation was continuously optimized using the critical groundwater level as the feedback, and a groundwater multiple-iterated technique was applied to the feedback process. The proposed model was successfully applied to a typical region in Shenyang in northeast China. Results showed the groundwater numerical model was verified in simulating water levels, with a mean absolute error of 0.44 m, an average relative error of 1.33%, and a root-mean-square error of 0.46 m. The groundwater exploitation reduced from 290.33 million m3 to 116.76 million m3 and the average water level recovered from 34.27 m to 34.72 m in planning year. Finally, we proposed the strategies for water resources management in which the water levels should be controlled within the critical groundwater level. The developed model provides a promising approach for water resources allocation and sustainable groundwater management, especially for those regions with overexploited groundwater. View Full-Text
Keywords: groundwater numerical model; multiple-iterated; optimal allocation of water resources; dual control; groundwater exploitation and water level; critical groundwater level groundwater numerical model; multiple-iterated; optimal allocation of water resources; dual control; groundwater exploitation and water level; critical groundwater level
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Liu, J.; Xie, X.; Ma, Z.; Fang, G.; He, H.; Du, M. A Multiple-Iterated Dual Control Model for Groundwater Exploitation and Water Level Based on the Optimal Allocation Model of Water Resources. Water 2018, 10, 432.

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