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Water 2018, 10(4), 402; doi:10.3390/w10040402

Wave Height Attenuation and Flow Resistance Due to Emergent or Near-Emergent Vegetation

1
Department of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering, University of Padua, Via Loredan, 20, 35131 Padova PD, Italy
2
Department of Civil, Environmental, Land, Building Engineering and Chemistry, Polytechnic University of Bari, Via Edoardo Orabona, 4, 70126 Bari BA, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 February 2018 / Revised: 21 March 2018 / Accepted: 27 March 2018 / Published: 29 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Turbulence in River and Maritime Hydraulics)
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Abstract

Vegetation plays a pivotal role in fluvial and coastal flows, affecting their structure and turbulence, thus having a strong impact on the processes of transport and diffusion of nutrients and sediments, as well as on ecosystems and habitats. In the present experimental study, the attenuation of regular waves propagating in a channel through flexible vegetation is investigated. Specifically, artificial plants mimicking Spartina maritima are considered. Different plant densities and arrangements are tested, as well as different submergence ratios. Measurements of wave characteristics by six wave gauges, distributed all along the vegetated stretch, allow us to estimate the wave energy dissipation. The flow resistance opposed by vegetation is inferred by considering that drag and dissipation coefficients are strictly related. The submergence ratio and the stem density, rather than the wave characteristics, affect the drag coefficient the most. A comparison with the results obtained in the case when the same vegetation is placed in a uniform flow is also shown. It confirms that the drag coefficient for the canopy is lower than for an isolated cylinder, even if the reduction is not affected by the stem density, underlining that flow unsteadiness might be crucial in the process of dissipation. View Full-Text
Keywords: wave attenuation; energy dissipation; drag coefficient; flexible vegetation; Spartina maritima wave attenuation; energy dissipation; drag coefficient; flexible vegetation; Spartina maritima
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Peruzzo, P.; De Serio, F.; Defina, A.; Mossa, M. Wave Height Attenuation and Flow Resistance Due to Emergent or Near-Emergent Vegetation. Water 2018, 10, 402.

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