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Water 2018, 10(2), 214; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10020214

Skin Effect of Fresh Water Measured Using Distributed Temperature Sensing

1
Department of Water Management, Water Resources Section, Delft University of Technology, Stevinweg 1, 2628CN, Delft, The Netherlands
2
Deltares, P.O. Box 177, 2600 MH Delft, The Netherlands
3
Department of Biological and Ecological Engineering, Oregon State University, 116 Gilmore Hall, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 December 2017 / Revised: 5 February 2018 / Accepted: 11 February 2018 / Published: 16 February 2018
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Abstract

A phenomenon known as the skin effect—a layer of surface water that is colder than the water beneath it—was previously described in oceanography and verified in lab measurements. Only a few measurements have been done on the skin effect in field conditions, and therefore this phenomenon is relatively unknown. This paper presents measurements of the skin effect for three fresh water bodies in the Netherlands, Israel and Ghana. Using Distributed Temperature Sensing, high temporal and spatial resolution measurements were made below, at and above the air–water surface. Measurements presented in this study suggest that the skin effect of fresh water bodies is predominantly a daytime phenomenon and only occurs during low to zero wind speeds. The thickness of the skin effect was measured to be an order of magnitude larger than the previously assumed less than 1 mm. View Full-Text
Keywords: water surface temperature; hydrology; surface energy balance; measurements water surface temperature; hydrology; surface energy balance; measurements
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Solcerova, A.; van Emmerik, T.; van de Ven, F.; Selker, J.; van de Giesen, N. Skin Effect of Fresh Water Measured Using Distributed Temperature Sensing. Water 2018, 10, 214.

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