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Water 2018, 10(2), 178; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10020178

Decline of N and P Uptake in the Inner Protection Zone of a Terminal Reservoir during Inter-Basin Water Transfers

1
College of Water Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
2
State Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing Science, Faculty of Geographical Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing Key Laboratory for Remote Sensing of Environment and Digital Cities, Beijing 100875, China
3
College of Geographical Science, Shanxi Normal University, Linfen 041004, China
4
Key Laboratory of Radiometric Calibration and Validation for Environmental Satellites, National Satellite Meteorological Center, China Meteorological Administration, Beijing 100081, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 December 2017 / Revised: 1 February 2018 / Accepted: 6 February 2018 / Published: 9 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adaptive Catchment Management and Reservoir Operation)
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Abstract

Inter-basin water transfer projects are designed to relieve water scarcity around the world. However, ecological problems relating to reductions in protection zone functions can occur during inter-basin transfers. This paper uses the largest inter-basin water transfer project in the world, namely, the South-to-North Water Transfer Project (SNWTP) in China, as an example to analyze the variation of Miyun Reservoir’s inner protection zone functions when water is transferred. Specifically, a riparian model (RIPAM) coupled with remote sensing data were used to calculate the nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) losses due to plant uptake, and these results were validated by in situ survey data. Then, correlations between water levels and N and P removal were analyzed. The results show that water table disturbances resulting from elevated water levels strongly influence the growth of plants and have obvious negative impacts on N and P removal in the inner protection zone. With the implementation of the middle route of the SNWTP, the water level of Miyun will rise to 150 m in 2020, and subsequently, the total net primary productivity (NPP) could decline by more than 40.90% from the level in 2015, while the N and P uptake could decline by more than 53.03% and 43.49%, respectively, from the levels in 2015, according to the modeling results. This will lead to declines in the inner protection zone’s defense effectiveness for N and P interception and increases in risks to the security of water resources. The results of this study provide useful knowledge for managing the defense function of the terminal reservoir’s inner protection zone and for ensuring that water quality is maintained during the diversion process. View Full-Text
Keywords: protection zone; nutrient uptake; NPP; South-to-North Water Transfer Project; Miyun Reservoir protection zone; nutrient uptake; NPP; South-to-North Water Transfer Project; Miyun Reservoir
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Yang, S.; Bai, J.; Zhao, C.; Lou, H.; Wang, Z.; Guan, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, C.; Yu, X. Decline of N and P Uptake in the Inner Protection Zone of a Terminal Reservoir during Inter-Basin Water Transfers. Water 2018, 10, 178.

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