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Water 2018, 10(2), 160; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10020160

Analysis of the Effects of Water Management Strategies and Climate Change on the Environmental and Agricultural Sustainability of Urmia Lake Basin, Iran

1
Department of Water Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman 76169-14111, Iran
2
Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman 76169-14111, Iran
3
Water Engineering Department, Urmia Lake Research Institute, Urmia University, Urmia 57179-44514, Iran
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 December 2017 / Revised: 24 January 2018 / Accepted: 31 January 2018 / Published: 7 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Water Management in Agriculture under Global Change)
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Abstract

In arid and semi-arid areas, unsustainable development of irrigated agriculture has reduced the water level of large lakes such as Aral, Urmia, Hamoon, and Bakhtegan. Urmia Lake, as a hyper saline and very shallow lake, located in the northwest of Iran, has water level reductions of about 40 cm each year over the past two decades. In this research, the indices of environmental and agricultural sustainability are evaluated using performance criteria influenced by climate change and water management strategies for the Zarrinehrud and Siminehrud River basins as the largest sub-basin of Urmia Lake basin. Modeling of hydrologic behavior of these basins is performed using WEAP21 model. The model is analyzed for three future emission scenarios (A2, A1B, and B1), for the period of 2015–2040 and five water management scenarios: (1) keeping the existing situation; (2) crop pattern change; (3) improving the conveyance and distribution efficiency; (4) combining the improvement of conveyance and distribution efficiency with improving the application efficiency using modern technology; and (5) the combination of crop pattern change with the improvement of total irrigation efficiency. The results show that the highest values of indices of environmental sustainability and agricultural sustainability are related to the scenario of combining the crop pattern change with improving the total irrigation efficiency under the B1 emission scenario (B1S4). View Full-Text
Keywords: climate change; water management; WEAP21 model; scenario analysis; Urmia Lake; sustainability index climate change; water management; WEAP21 model; scenario analysis; Urmia Lake; sustainability index
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Ahmadaali, J.; Barani, G.-A.; Qaderi, K.; Hessari, B. Analysis of the Effects of Water Management Strategies and Climate Change on the Environmental and Agricultural Sustainability of Urmia Lake Basin, Iran. Water 2018, 10, 160.

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