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Water 2018, 10(2), 112; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10020112

Spatial and Temporal Analysis of Rainfall Concentration Using the Gini Index and PCI

1
Technological Center of Environmental Hydrology, University of Talca, Talca 3462227, Chile
2
Department of Water Resources, University of Concepción, Chillán 3812120, Chile
3
Faculty of Forest Sciences and Nature Conservancy, University of Chile, Santiago 8820808, Chile
4
Department of Hydrology and Atmospheric Sciences & Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA
5
International Hydrological Programme & International Sediment Initiative, UNESCO, Montevideo 11#00 & 12#00, Uruguay
6
School of Water, Energy and Environment, Cranfield University, College Rd, Cranfield MK43 0AL, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 November 2017 / Revised: 22 January 2018 / Accepted: 22 January 2018 / Published: 28 January 2018
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Abstract

This study aims to determine if there is variation in precipitation concentrations in Chile. We analyzed daily and monthly records from 89 pluviometric stations in the period 1970–2016 and distributed between 29°12′ S and 39°30′ S. This area was divided into two climatic zones: arid–semiarid and humid–subhumid. For each station, the Gini coefficient or Gini Index (GI), the precipitation concentration index (PCI), and the maximum annual precipitation intensity in a 24-h duration were calculated. These series of annual values were analyzed with the Mann–Kendall test with 5% error. Overall, it was noted that positive trends in the GI are present in both areas, although most were not found to be significant. In the case of PCI, the presence of positive trends is only present in the arid–semiarid zone; in the humid–subhumid zone, negative trends were mostly observed, although none of them were significant. Although no significant changes in all indices are evident, the particular case of the GI in the humid–subhumid zone stands out, where mostly positive trends were found (91.1%), of which 35.6% were significant. This would indicate that precipitation is more likely to be concentrated on a daily scale. View Full-Text
Keywords: precipitation concentration; rainfall Gini Index; precipitation trends; trends of monthly and daily precipitation; 24 h maximum intensity precipitation concentration; rainfall Gini Index; precipitation trends; trends of monthly and daily precipitation; 24 h maximum intensity
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Sangüesa, C.; Pizarro, R.; Ibañez, A.; Pino, J.; Rivera, D.; García-Chevesich, P.; Ingram, B. Spatial and Temporal Analysis of Rainfall Concentration Using the Gini Index and PCI. Water 2018, 10, 112.

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