Next Article in Journal
Accuracy Evaluation of Two High-Resolution Satellite-Based Rainfall Products: TRMM 3B42V7 and CMORPH in Shanghai
Next Article in Special Issue
High-Strength Domestic Wastewater Treatment and Reuse with Onsite Passive Methods
Previous Article in Journal
Reducing the Content of Metal Ions from Mine Water by Using Converter Sludge
Previous Article in Special Issue
Water Use and Conservation on a Free-Stall Dairy Farm
Article Menu
Issue 1 (January) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Water 2018, 10(1), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10010039

Effect of Substrate, Feeding Mode and Number of Stages on the Performance of Hybrid Constructed Wetland Systems

Institute of Environmental Studies and Natural Resources (i-UNAT), University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35017 Las Palmas, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 October 2017 / Revised: 19 December 2017 / Accepted: 2 January 2018 / Published: 5 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Water Management: Saving, Treatment and Reuse)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1137 KB, uploaded 5 January 2018]   |  

Abstract

A hybrid constructed wetland mesocosm has been used for the treatment of raw urban wastewater. The first stage was a mulch-based, subsurface, horizontal flow constructed wetland (HF). The HF achieved good removals of COD (61%; 54 g/m2·day) and Total Suspended Solids (84%; 29 g/m2·day). The second stage was composed of vertical flow constructed wetlands (VF) that were employed to study the effect of substrate (gravel vs. mulch), feeding mode (continuous vs. intermittent) and the number of stages (1 vs. 2) on performance. High hydraulic and organic surface loadings (513–583 L/m2·day and 103–118 g/m2·day of COD) were applied to the reactors. The mulch was more efficient than gravel for all the parameters analyzed. The continuous feeding allowed a 3 to 6-fold reduction of the surface area required. View Full-Text
Keywords: forest waste; palm mulch; constructed wetlands; vertical flow forest waste; palm mulch; constructed wetlands; vertical flow
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Herrera-Melián, J.A.; Borreguero-Fabelo, A.; Araña, J.; Peñate-Castellano, N.; Ortega-Méndez, J.A. Effect of Substrate, Feeding Mode and Number of Stages on the Performance of Hybrid Constructed Wetland Systems. Water 2018, 10, 39.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Water EISSN 2073-4441 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top