Seasonal Variation and Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in PM2.5 during Winter and Summer over Xi’an, China
AbstractIn this study, 24 h PM2.5 (particles with an equivalent diameter equal to or below 2.5 μm) samples were collected in winter and summer in Xi’an, Northwestern China to characterize the seasonal variations of eleven elements (As, Cd, Cr, Fe, K, Mn, Mo, Pb, Ni, Zn, and Cu) and to evaluate their health risks by using the US EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) method. Mass concentrations of the elements (except Ni) in winter were much higher than those in summer, with similar variations for both seasons. The levels of elements followed a decreasing order of K > Zn > Fe > Pb > Cr > As > Mn > Cu > Mo > Ni > Cd. According to the enrichment factor (EF) analysis, the highest EF value for Cd inferred that it should be linked with the metal smelting and other anthropogenic sources. In contrast, the EF values of K and Mn (1 < EF < 5) suggested that they were influenced by both natural and anthropogenic sources. The daily average exposure dose for children and adults by different exposure pathways were both ingestion > dermal contact > inhalation. The non-cancer risks for different exposure pathways showed different orders. The non-cancer risks (hazard quotients) were lower than the average risk threshold (1.0) except for As, Pb, and Cr, which require greater attention. Elements of As and Cr were higher than the cancer risk threshold value (1 × 10−6), indicating that the cancer risks of PM2.5 elements in Xi’an should be a concern. View Full-Text
Scifeed alert for new publicationsNever miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
- Get alerts for new papers matching your research
- Find out the new papers from selected authors
- Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
- Define your Scifeed now
Liu, P.; Lei, Y.; Ren, H.; Gao, J.; Xu, H.; Shen, Z.; Zhang, Q.; Zheng, C.; Liu, H.; Zhang, R.; Pan, H. Seasonal Variation and Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in PM2.5 during Winter and Summer over Xi’an, China. Atmosphere 2017, 8, 91.
Liu P, Lei Y, Ren H, Gao J, Xu H, Shen Z, Zhang Q, Zheng C, Liu H, Zhang R, Pan H. Seasonal Variation and Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in PM2.5 during Winter and Summer over Xi’an, China. Atmosphere. 2017; 8(5):91.Chicago/Turabian Style
Liu, Pingping; Lei, Yali; Ren, Huarui; Gao, Jinjin; Xu, Hongmei; Shen, Zhenxing; Zhang, Qian; Zheng, Chunli; Liu, Hongxia; Zhang, Renjian; Pan, Hua. 2017. "Seasonal Variation and Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in PM2.5 during Winter and Summer over Xi’an, China." Atmosphere 8, no. 5: 91.
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.