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Atmosphere 2016, 7(7), 95; doi:10.3390/atmos7070095

A WRF Simulation of an Episode of Contrails Covering the Entire Sky

1
Department of Physics—Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya—BarcelonaTech, Barcelona 08034, Spain
2
Institute of Space Studies of Catalonia (IEEC–UPC), Barcelona 08034, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Katja Friedrich
Received: 30 May 2016 / Revised: 27 June 2016 / Accepted: 12 July 2016 / Published: 20 July 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Clouds and Precipitation)
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Abstract

On 21 September 2012 the entire sky was covered by contrails over the Gulf of Lyon (NW of the Mediterranean basin). These clouds were well recorded by ground observers as well as by Meteosat imagery. The atmospheric characteristics at the levels where these anthropic clouds formed are analyzed by performing a WRF simulation in the area where Meteosat recorded contrail clouds. According to the vertical profiles of temperature and the relative humidity respect to the ice (RHI), the environmental condition favors that the water vapor exhaust emitted by the aircraft engines reaches the deposition point and form crystal clouds, which spread out because the temperature remained below 230 K and the RHI was higher than 70% during the whole episode. View Full-Text
Keywords: contrails; cirrus; Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) contrails; cirrus; Weather Research and Forecast (WRF)
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Mazon, J.; Pino, D. A WRF Simulation of an Episode of Contrails Covering the Entire Sky. Atmosphere 2016, 7, 95.

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