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Atmosphere 2016, 7(8), 99; doi:10.3390/atmos7080099

Effects of Aerosols on Radiative Forcing and Climate Over East Asia With Different SO2 Emissions

1
SKLLQG, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi’an 710061, China
2
Department of Environmental Science and Technology, School of Human Settlements and Civil Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049, China
3
Shaanxi Radio & TV University, Xi’an 710002, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Katja Friedrich
Received: 14 June 2016 / Revised: 20 July 2016 / Accepted: 20 July 2016 / Published: 28 July 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Clouds and Precipitation)
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Abstract

It is known that aerosol and precursor gas emissions over East Asia may be underestimated by 50% due to the absence of data on regional rural and township industries. As the most important element of anthropogenic emissions, sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ) can form sulfate aerosols through several chemical processes, thus affecting the regional and global climate. In this study, we use the Community Atmospheric Model 5.1 (CAM5.1) to investigate the effects of anthropogenic aerosols on radiative forcing and the climate over East Asia, taking into consideration various SO 2 emission levels, including double the amount of SO 2 emissions over East Asia. Numerical experiments are performed using high-resolution CAM5.1 with pre-industrial (PI) and present day (PD) aerosol emission levels, and with PD aerosol emission levels with double SO 2 emissions over East Asia (PD2SO2). The simulated aerosol optical depth and surface sulfate concentrations over East Asia are significantly increased in PD2SO2, which is in better agreement with the observational results. The simulation results show extensive aerosol direct and indirect radiative forcing for PD−PI (the difference between PI and PD), which significantly weakens the large-scale intensity of the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) and reduces the summer precipitation. Compared to PD, the aerosol direct radiative forcing is significantly increased in PD2SO2, whereas the aerosol indirect radiative forcing is markedly decreased due to the inhibition of cloud formation, especially over North China. The increase in aerosol direct radiative forcing and decrease in aerosol indirect radiative forcing result in insignificant changes in the total amount of aerosol radiative forcing. These results also show that the large-scale intensity of the EASM and the associated summer precipitation are insensitive to the doubling of current SO 2 emissions. View Full-Text
Keywords: aerosol direct effect; aerosol indirect effect; summer precipitation aerosol direct effect; aerosol indirect effect; summer precipitation
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Xie, X.; Liu, X.; Wang, H.; Wang, Z. Effects of Aerosols on Radiative Forcing and Climate Over East Asia With Different SO2 Emissions. Atmosphere 2016, 7, 99.

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