Chronic and Occult Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Pregnant Women in Botswana
AbstractThe hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a global problem; however, the burden of HBV infection in pregnant women in Botswana is unknown. We sought to determine the prevalence of chronic and occult HBV infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and -uninfected pregnant women in Botswana. Samples from 752 pregnant women were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), and HBsAg-positive samples were tested for hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) and HBV DNA load. Samples that were HBsAg negative were screened for occult HBV infection by determining the HBV DNA load. HBV genotypes were determined based on a 415-base-pair fragment of the surface gene. Among the 752 women tested during pregnancy or early postpartum, 16 (2.1%) (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.0–2.2) were HBsAg-positive. The prevalence of chronic HBV infection was higher (3.1%) among HIV-infected (95% CI: 3.0–3.2) compared with HIV-uninfected women (1.1%) (95% CI: 1.07–1.1, p = 0.057). Among the 622 HBsAg-negative women, the prevalence of occult HBV infection was 6.6% (95% CI: 6.5–6.7). Three of thirteen HBsAg-positive participants were HBeAg-positive, and all were HIV-negative. Of the 11 maternal samples successfully genotyped, five (45.5%) were genotype D3, five (45.5%) were genotype A1, and one was genotype E (9%). Low and similar proportions of HIV-infected and -uninfected pregnant women in Botswana had occult or chronic HBV infection. We identified a subset of HIV-negative pregnant women who had high HBV DNA levels and were HBeAg-positive, and thus likely to transmit HBV to their infants. View Full-Text
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Mbangiwa, T.; Kasvosve, I.; Anderson, M.; Thami, P.K.; Choga, W.T.; Needleman, A.; Phinius, B.B.; Moyo, S.; Leteane, M.; Leidner, J.; Blackard, J.T.; Mayondi, G.; Kammerer, B.; Musonda, R.M.; Essex, M.; Lockman, S.; Gaseitsiwe, S. Chronic and Occult Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Pregnant Women in Botswana. Genes 2018, 9, 259.
Mbangiwa T, Kasvosve I, Anderson M, Thami PK, Choga WT, Needleman A, Phinius BB, Moyo S, Leteane M, Leidner J, Blackard JT, Mayondi G, Kammerer B, Musonda RM, Essex M, Lockman S, Gaseitsiwe S. Chronic and Occult Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Pregnant Women in Botswana. Genes. 2018; 9(5):259.Chicago/Turabian Style
Mbangiwa, Tshepiso; Kasvosve, Ishmael; Anderson, Motswedi; Thami, Prisca K.; Choga, Wonderful T.; Needleman, Austen; Phinius, Bonolo B.; Moyo, Sikhulile; Leteane, Melvin; Leidner, Jean; Blackard, Jason T.; Mayondi, Gloria; Kammerer, Betsy; Musonda, Rosemary M.; Essex, Max; Lockman, Shahin; Gaseitsiwe, Simani. 2018. "Chronic and Occult Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Pregnant Women in Botswana." Genes 9, no. 5: 259.
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