Biofilm Formation by the Acidophile Bacterium Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans Involves c-di-GMP Pathway and Pel exopolysaccharide
AbstractAcidophile bacteria belonging to the Acidithiobacillus genus are pivotal players for the bioleaching of metallic values such as copper. Cell adherence to ores and biofilm formation, mediated by the production of extracellular polymeric substances, strongly favors bioleaching activity. In recent years, the second messenger cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) has emerged as a central regulator for biofilm formation in bacteria. C-di-GMP pathways have been reported in different Acidithiobacillus species; however, c-di-GMP effectors and signal transduction networks are still largely uncharacterized in these extremophile species. Here we investigated Pel exopolysaccharide and its role in biofilm formation by sulfur-oxidizing species Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans. We identified 39 open reading frames (ORFs) encoding proteins involved in c-di-GMP metabolism and signal transduction, including the c-di-GMP effector protein PelD, a structural component of the biosynthesis apparatus for Pel exopolysaccharide production. We found that intracellular c-di-GMP concentrations and transcription levels of pel genes were higher in At. thiooxidans biofilm cells compared to planktonic ones. By developing an At. thiooxidans ΔpelD null-mutant strain we revealed that Pel exopolysaccharide is involved in biofilm structure and development. Further studies are still necessary to understand how Pel biosynthesis is regulated in Acidithiobacillus species, nevertheless these results represent the first characterization of a c-di-GMP effector protein involved in biofilm formation by acidophile species. View Full-Text
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Díaz, M.; Castro, M.; Copaja, S.; Guiliani, N. Biofilm Formation by the Acidophile Bacterium Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans Involves c-di-GMP Pathway and Pel exopolysaccharide. Genes 2018, 9, 113.
Díaz M, Castro M, Copaja S, Guiliani N. Biofilm Formation by the Acidophile Bacterium Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans Involves c-di-GMP Pathway and Pel exopolysaccharide. Genes. 2018; 9(2):113.Chicago/Turabian Style
Díaz, Mauricio; Castro, Matias; Copaja, Sylvia; Guiliani, Nicolas. 2018. "Biofilm Formation by the Acidophile Bacterium Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans Involves c-di-GMP Pathway and Pel exopolysaccharide." Genes 9, no. 2: 113.
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