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Genes 2017, 8(6), 155; doi:10.3390/genes8060155

New Insights in the Cytogenetic Practice: Karyotypic Chaos, Non-Clonal Chromosomal Alterations and Chromosomal Instability in Human Cancer and Therapy Response

1
Department of Medical Sciences, University of Turin, Turin 10126, Italy
2
Doctoral Program in Biomedical Sciences, Universidad del Rosario, Bogotá 11001000, Colombia
3
Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia, Tunja 150003, Colombia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Selvarangan Ponnazhagan
Received: 15 April 2017 / Revised: 26 May 2017 / Accepted: 31 May 2017 / Published: 3 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Genomics in Genetic Diseases and Cancer)
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Abstract

Recently, non-clonal chromosomal alterations previously unappreciated are being proposed to be included in cytogenetic practice. The aim of this inclusion is to obtain a greater understanding of chromosomal instability (CIN) and tumor heterogeneity and their role in cancer evolution and therapy response. Although several genetic assays have allowed the evaluation of the variation in a population of cancer cells, these assays do not provide information at the level of individual cells, therefore limiting the information of the genomic diversity within tumors (heterogeneity). The karyotype is one of the few available cytogenetic techniques that allow us not only to identify the chromosomal alterations present within a single cell, but also allows us to profile both clonal (CCA) and non-clonal chromosomal alterations (NCCAs). A greater understanding of CIN and tumor heterogeneity in cancer could not only improve existing therapeutic regimens but could also be used as targets for the design of new therapeutic approaches. In this review we indicate the importance and significance of karyotypic chaos, NCCAs and CIN in the prognosis of human cancers. View Full-Text
Keywords: cancer; chromosomal instability; clonal chromosomal alterations; non-clonal chromosomal alterations; therapy response; therapy resistance cancer; chromosomal instability; clonal chromosomal alterations; non-clonal chromosomal alterations; therapy response; therapy resistance
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Rangel, N.; Forero-Castro, M.; Rondón-Lagos, M. New Insights in the Cytogenetic Practice: Karyotypic Chaos, Non-Clonal Chromosomal Alterations and Chromosomal Instability in Human Cancer and Therapy Response. Genes 2017, 8, 155.

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