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Genes 2017, 8(6), 148; doi:10.3390/genes8060148

CpG and Non-CpG Methylation in Epigenetic Gene Regulation and Brain Function

Department of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biotechnology, KU Institute of Science and Technology, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701, Korea
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Academic Editor: Dennis R. Grayson
Received: 16 February 2017 / Revised: 18 April 2017 / Accepted: 19 May 2017 / Published: 23 May 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Epigenetic Gene Regulation in Brain Function)
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Abstract

DNA methylation is a major epigenetic mark with important roles in genetic regulation. Methylated cytosines are found primarily at CpG dinucleotides, but are also found at non-CpG sites (CpA, CpT, and CpC). The general functions of CpG and non-CpG methylation include gene silencing or activation depending on the methylated regions. CpG and non-CpG methylation are found throughout the whole genome, including repetitive sequences, enhancers, promoters, and gene bodies. Interestingly, however, non-CpG methylation is restricted to specific cell types, such as pluripotent stem cells, oocytes, neurons, and glial cells. Thus, accumulation of methylation at non-CpG sites and CpG sites in neurons seems to be involved in development and disease etiology. Here, we provide an overview of CpG and non-CpG methylation and their roles in neurological diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: epigenetics; CpG methylation; non-CpG methylation epigenetics; CpG methylation; non-CpG methylation
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Jang, H.S.; Shin, W.J.; Lee, J.E.; Do, J.T. CpG and Non-CpG Methylation in Epigenetic Gene Regulation and Brain Function. Genes 2017, 8, 148.

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