Next Article in Journal
Noncoding RNA Profiles in Tobacco- and Alcohol-Associated Diseases
Next Article in Special Issue
Identification and Analysis of RNA Editing Sites in the Chloroplast Transcripts of Aegilops tauschii L.
Previous Article in Journal
miR-203 and miR-320 Regulate Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2-Induced Osteoblast Differentiation by Targeting Distal-Less Homeobox 5 (Dlx5)
Previous Article in Special Issue
Functions of the RNA Editing Enzyme ADAR1 and Their Relevance to Human Diseases
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Genes 2017, 8(1), 5; doi:10.3390/genes8010005

RNA Editing and Its Molecular Mechanism in Plant Organelles

1
Center for Gene Research, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602, Japan
2
Institute of Transformative Bio-Molecules, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: H. Ulrich Göringer
Received: 24 October 2016 / Revised: 23 November 2016 / Accepted: 20 December 2016 / Published: 23 December 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue RNA Editing)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1563 KB, uploaded 23 December 2016]   |  

Abstract

RNA editing by cytidine (C) to uridine (U) conversions is widespread in plant mitochondria and chloroplasts. In some plant taxa, “reverse” U-to-C editing also occurs. However, to date, no instance of RNA editing has yet been reported in green algae and the complex thalloid liverworts. RNA editing may have evolved in early land plants 450 million years ago. However, in some plant species, including the liverwort, Marchantia polymorpha, editing may have been lost during evolution. Most RNA editing events can restore the evolutionarily conserved amino acid residues in mRNAs or create translation start and stop codons. Therefore, RNA editing is an essential process to maintain genetic information at the RNA level. Individual RNA editing sites are recognized by plant-specific pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins that are encoded in the nuclear genome. These PPR proteins are characterized by repeat elements that bind specifically to RNA sequences upstream of target editing sites. In flowering plants, non-PPR proteins also participate in multiple RNA editing events as auxiliary factors. C-to-U editing can be explained by cytidine deamination. The proteins discovered to date are important factors for RNA editing but a bona fide RNA editing enzyme has yet to be identified. View Full-Text
Keywords: RNA editing; chloroplasts; mitochondria; plant organelles; C-to-U editing; U-to-C editing; pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) protein; site-recognition specificity factor; cytidine deaminase RNA editing; chloroplasts; mitochondria; plant organelles; C-to-U editing; U-to-C editing; pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) protein; site-recognition specificity factor; cytidine deaminase
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Ichinose, M.; Sugita, M. RNA Editing and Its Molecular Mechanism in Plant Organelles. Genes 2017, 8, 5.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Genes EISSN 2073-4425 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top