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Genes 2017, 8(1), 24; doi:10.3390/genes8010024

Translesion Synthesis: Insights into the Selection and Switching of DNA Polymerases

1
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, MI 48859, USA
2
Science of Advanced Materials Program, Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, MI 48859, USA
3
Department of Biochemistry, Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Eishi Noguchi
Received: 30 November 2016 / Revised: 4 January 2017 / Accepted: 4 January 2017 / Published: 10 January 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue DNA Replication Controls)

Abstract

DNA replication is constantly challenged by DNA lesions, noncanonical DNA structures and difficult-to-replicate DNA sequences. Two major strategies to rescue a stalled replication fork and to ensure continuous DNA synthesis are: (1) template switching and recombination-dependent DNA synthesis; and (2) translesion synthesis (TLS) using specialized DNA polymerases to perform nucleotide incorporation opposite DNA lesions. The former pathway is mainly error-free, and the latter is error-prone and a major source of mutagenesis. An accepted model of translesion synthesis involves DNA polymerase switching steps between a replicative DNA polymerase and one or more TLS DNA polymerases. The mechanisms that govern the selection and exchange of specialized DNA polymerases for a given DNA lesion are not well understood. In this review, recent studies concerning the mechanisms of selection and switching of DNA polymerases in eukaryotic systems are summarized.
Keywords: DNA damage; DNA lesion bypass; DNA polymerase; genomic instability; mutagenesis; translesion synthesis DNA damage; DNA lesion bypass; DNA polymerase; genomic instability; mutagenesis; translesion synthesis
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Zhao, L.; Washington, M.T. Translesion Synthesis: Insights into the Selection and Switching of DNA Polymerases. Genes 2017, 8, 24.

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