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Genes 2016, 7(5), 21; doi:10.3390/genes7050021

The Roles of NDR Protein Kinases in Hippo Signalling

Cancer Institute, University College London, Paul O’Gorman building, 72 Huntley Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK
Academic Editor: Paul Reynolds
Received: 19 April 2016 / Revised: 9 May 2016 / Accepted: 10 May 2016 / Published: 18 May 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hippo Signaling Pathway)
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Abstract

The Hippo tumour suppressor pathway has emerged as a critical regulator of tissue growth through controlling cellular processes such as cell proliferation, death, differentiation and stemness. Traditionally, the core cassette of the Hippo pathway includes the MST1/2 protein kinases, the LATS1/2 protein kinases, and the MOB1 scaffold signal transducer, which together regulate the transcriptional co-activator functions of the proto-oncoproteins YAP and TAZ through LATS1/2-mediated phosphorylation of YAP/TAZ. Recent research has identified additional kinases, such as NDR1/2 (also known as STK38/STK38L) and MAP4Ks, which should be considered as novel members of the Hippo core cassette. While these efforts helped to expand our understanding of Hippo core signalling, they also began to provide insights into the complexity and redundancy of the Hippo signalling network. Here, we focus on summarising our current knowledge of the regulation and functions of mammalian NDR kinases, discussing parallels between the NDR pathways in Drosophila and mammals. Initially, we provide a general overview of the cellular functions of NDR kinases in cell cycle progression, centrosome biology, apoptosis, autophagy, DNA damage signalling, immunology and neurobiology. Finally, we put particular emphasis on discussing NDR1/2 as YAP kinases downstream of MST1/2 and MOB1 signalling in Hippo signalling. View Full-Text
Keywords: NDR; Nuclear Dbf2-related kinase; STK38; serine/threonine kinase 38; LATS; large tumour suppressor; Warts kinase; Hippo kinase signalling; Tricornered; Yes-associated protein NDR; Nuclear Dbf2-related kinase; STK38; serine/threonine kinase 38; LATS; large tumour suppressor; Warts kinase; Hippo kinase signalling; Tricornered; Yes-associated protein
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Hergovich, A. The Roles of NDR Protein Kinases in Hippo Signalling. Genes 2016, 7, 21.

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