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Erratum published on 15 June 2017, see Genes 2017, 8(6), 162.

Open AccessReview
Genes 2016, 7(12), 112; doi:10.3390/genes7120112

H-NS, Its Family Members and Their Regulation of Virulence Genes in Shigella Species

School of Life Sciences, University of Nevada Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV 89154-4004, USA
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Thierry Wirth
Received: 19 September 2016 / Revised: 22 November 2016 / Accepted: 24 November 2016 / Published: 1 December 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Virulence Gene Regulation in Bacteria)
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Abstract

The histone-like nucleoid structuring protein (H-NS) has played a key role in shaping the evolution of Shigella spp., and provides the backdrop to the regulatory cascade that controls virulence by silencing many genes found on the large virulence plasmid. H-NS and its paralogue StpA are present in all four Shigella spp., but a second H-NS paralogue, Sfh, is found in the Shigella flexneri type strain 2457T, which is routinely used in studies of Shigella pathogenesis. While StpA and Sfh have been proposed to serve as “molecular backups” for H-NS, the apparent redundancy of these proteins is questioned by in vitro studies and work done in Escherichia coli. In this review, we describe the current understanding of the regulatory activities of the H-NS family members, the challenges associated with studying these proteins and their role in the regulation of virulence genes in Shigella. View Full-Text
Keywords: H-NS; Shigella; transcription; xenogeneic silencing; virulence gene expression; silencing mechanisms; anti-silencing mechanisms H-NS; Shigella; transcription; xenogeneic silencing; virulence gene expression; silencing mechanisms; anti-silencing mechanisms
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Picker, M.A.; Wing, H.J. H-NS, Its Family Members and Their Regulation of Virulence Genes in Shigella Species. Genes 2016, 7, 112.

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