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Genes 2016, 7(12), 115; doi:10.3390/genes7120115

Phylogenetic Relationships of the Fern Cyrtomium falcatum (Dryopteridaceae) from Dokdo Island Based on Chloroplast Genome Sequencing

Department of Life Sciences, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 38541, Korea
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paolo Cinelli
Received: 4 October 2016 / Revised: 18 November 2016 / Accepted: 28 November 2016 / Published: 2 December 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Genetics)
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Abstract

Cyrtomium falcatum is a popular ornamental fern cultivated worldwide. Native to the Korean Peninsula, Japan, and Dokdo Island in the Sea of Japan, it is the only fern present on Dokdo Island. We isolated and characterized the chloroplast (cp) genome of C. falcatum, and compared it with those of closely related species. The genes trnV-GAC and trnV-GAU were found to be present within the cp genome of C. falcatum, whereas trnP-GGG and rpl21 were lacking. Moreover, cp genomes of Cyrtomium devexiscapulae and Adiantum capillus-veneris lack trnP-GGG and rpl21, suggesting these are not conserved among angiosperm cp genomes. The deletion of trnR-UCG, trnR-CCG, and trnSeC in the cp genomes of C. falcatum and other eupolypod ferns indicates these genes are restricted to tree ferns, non-core leptosporangiates, and basal ferns. The C. falcatum cp genome also encoded ndhF and rps7, with GUG start codons that were only conserved in polypod ferns, and it shares two significant inversions with other ferns, including a minor inversion of the trnD-GUC region and an approximate 3 kb inversion of the trnG-trnT region. Phylogenetic analyses showed that Equisetum was found to be a sister clade to Psilotales-Ophioglossales with a 100% bootstrap (BS) value. The sister relationship between Pteridaceae and eupolypods was also strongly supported by a 100% BS, but Bayesian molecular clock analyses suggested that C. falcatum diversified in the mid-Paleogene period (45.15 ± 4.93 million years ago) and might have moved from Eurasia to Dokdo Island. View Full-Text
Keywords: Cyrtomium falcatum; holly fern; chloroplast genome; polypod ferns; molecular clock Cyrtomium falcatum; holly fern; chloroplast genome; polypod ferns; molecular clock
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MDPI and ACS Style

Raman, G.; Choi, K.S.; Park, S. Phylogenetic Relationships of the Fern Cyrtomium falcatum (Dryopteridaceae) from Dokdo Island Based on Chloroplast Genome Sequencing. Genes 2016, 7, 115.

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