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Genes 2016, 7(10), 89; doi:10.3390/genes7100089

Systematic Analysis of the 4-Coumarate:Coenzyme A Ligase (4CL) Related Genes and Expression Profiling during Fruit Development in the Chinese Pear

1,†
,
2,†
,
1
,
1
and
1,*
1
School of Life Sciences, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036, China
2
State Key Laboratory of Tea Plant Biology and Utilization, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Lukas Mueller
Received: 9 July 2016 / Revised: 24 September 2016 / Accepted: 7 October 2016 / Published: 19 October 2016
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Abstract

In plants, 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligases (4CLs), comprising some of the adenylate-forming enzymes, are key enzymes involved in regulating lignin metabolism and the biosynthesis of flavonoids and other secondary metabolites. Although several 4CL-related proteins were shown to play roles in secondary metabolism, no comprehensive study on 4CL-related genes in the pear and other Rosaceae species has been reported. In this study, we identified 4CL-related genes in the apple, peach, yangmei, and pear genomes using DNATOOLS software and inferred their evolutionary relationships using phylogenetic analysis, collinearity analysis, conserved motif analysis, and structure analysis. A total of 149 4CL-related genes in four Rosaceous species (pear, apple, peach, and yangmei) were identified, with 30 members in the pear. We explored the functions of several 4CL and acyl-coenzyme A synthetase (ACS) genes during the development of pear fruit by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). We found that duplication events had occurred in the 30 4CL-related genes in the pear. These duplicated 4CL-related genes are distributed unevenly across all pear chromosomes except chromosomes 4, 8, 11, and 12. The results of this study provide a basis for further investigation of both the functions and evolutionary history of 4CL-related genes. View Full-Text
Keywords: 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligases (4CL); acyl-coenzyme A synthetase (ACS); pear; gene family; qRT-PCR 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligases (4CL); acyl-coenzyme A synthetase (ACS); pear; gene family; qRT-PCR
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Cao, Y.; Han, Y.; Li, D.; Lin, Y.; Cai, Y. Systematic Analysis of the 4-Coumarate:Coenzyme A Ligase (4CL) Related Genes and Expression Profiling during Fruit Development in the Chinese Pear. Genes 2016, 7, 89.

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