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Genes 2015, 6(3), 734-750; doi:10.3390/genes6030734

Contribution of Topological Domains and Loop Formation to 3D Chromatin Organization

1
Institut de Génétique Moléculaire de Montpellier, UMR5535, CNRS, Université de Montpellier, 1919 Route de Mende, 34293 Montpellier cedex 5, France
2
Laboratoire de Physique de la Matière Condensée, CNRS UMR 7600, UPMC, Sorbonne Universités, 75252 Paris, France
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jessica Tyler
Received: 27 April 2015 / Revised: 25 June 2015 / Accepted: 8 July 2015 / Published: 27 July 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chromatin Dynamics)
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Abstract

Recent investigations on 3D chromatin folding revealed that the eukaryote genomes are both highly compartmentalized and extremely dynamic. This review presents the most recent advances in topological domains’ organization of the eukaryote genomes and discusses the relationship to chromatin loop formation. CTCF protein appears as a central factor of these two organization levels having either a strong insulating role at TAD borders, or a weaker architectural role in chromatin loop formation. TAD borders directly impact on chromatin dynamics by restricting contacts within specific genomic portions thus confining chromatin loop formation within TADs. We discuss how sub-TAD chromatin dynamics, constrained into a recently described statistical helix conformation, can produce functional interactions by contact stabilization. View Full-Text
Keywords: chromatin dynamics; topological domains; TAD borders; chromatin loops; CTCF; statistical helix chromatin dynamics; topological domains; TAD borders; chromatin loops; CTCF; statistical helix
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Ea, V.; Baudement, M.-O.; Lesne, A.; Forné, T. Contribution of Topological Domains and Loop Formation to 3D Chromatin Organization. Genes 2015, 6, 734-750.

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