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Genes 2013, 4(3), 499-521; doi:10.3390/genes4030499
Review

Genes Involved in Type 1 Diabetes: An Update

1,†
,
1,†
 and
1,2,*
1 Center for Applied Genomics, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA 2 Department of Pediatrics, The Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA Those authors contributed equally to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 July 2013 / Revised: 26 August 2013 / Accepted: 5 September 2013 / Published: 16 September 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetics of Diabetes)
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Abstract

Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) is a chronic multifactorial disease with a strong genetic component, which, through interactions with specific environmental factors, triggers disease onset. T1D typically manifests in early to mid childhood through the autoimmune destruction of pancreatic β cells resulting in a lack of insulin production. Historically, prior to genome-wide association studies (GWAS), six loci in the genome were fully established to be associated with T1D. With the advent of high-throughput single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping array technologies, enabling investigators to perform high-density GWAS, many additional T1D susceptibility genes have been discovered. Indeed, recent meta-analyses of multiple datasets from independent investigators have brought the tally of well-validated T1D disease genes to almost 60. In this mini-review, we address recent advances in the genetics of T1D and provide an update on the latest susceptibility loci added to the list of genes involved in the pathogenesis of T1D.
Keywords: Type 1 Diabetes (T1D); genome-wide association studies (GWAS); immune system; susceptibility loci; natural killer (NK) cells; pancreatic β-cells Type 1 Diabetes (T1D); genome-wide association studies (GWAS); immune system; susceptibility loci; natural killer (NK) cells; pancreatic β-cells
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).
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Bakay, M.; Pandey, R.; Hakonarson, H. Genes Involved in Type 1 Diabetes: An Update. Genes 2013, 4, 499-521.

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