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Genes 2013, 4(2), 101-133; doi:10.3390/genes4020101

The Role of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase-Activated Protein Kinases (MAPKAPKs) in Inflammation

* ,
Molecular Inflammation Research Group, Department of Medical Biology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Tromsø, NO-9037 Tromsø, Norway
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 January 2013 / Revised: 18 March 2013 / Accepted: 20 March 2013 / Published: 26 March 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Signal Transduction)
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Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways are implicated in several cellular processes including proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, cell survival, cell motility, metabolism, stress response and inflammation. MAPK pathways transmit and convert a plethora of extracellular signals by three consecutive phosphorylation events involving a MAPK kinase kinase, a MAPK kinase, and a MAPK. In turn MAPKs phosphorylate substrates, including other protein kinases referred to as MAPK-activated protein kinases (MAPKAPKs). Eleven mammalian MAPKAPKs have been identified: ribosomal-S6-kinases (RSK1-4), mitogen- and stress-activated kinases (MSK1-2), MAPK-interacting kinases (MNK1-2), MAPKAPK-2 (MK2), MAPKAPK-3 (MK3), and MAPKAPK-5 (MK5). The role of these MAPKAPKs in inflammation will be reviewed.
Keywords: RSK; MSK; MNK; MK2; MK3; MK5; NF-kB; STAT3 RSK; MSK; MNK; MK2; MK3; MK5; NF-kB; STAT3
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Moens, U.; Kostenko, S.; Sveinbjørnsson, B. The Role of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase-Activated Protein Kinases (MAPKAPKs) in Inflammation. Genes 2013, 4, 101-133.

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