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Genes 2013, 4(2), 101-133; doi:10.3390/genes4020101
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The Role of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase-Activated Protein Kinases (MAPKAPKs) in Inflammation

* ,
 and
Molecular Inflammation Research Group, Department of Medical Biology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Tromsø, NO-9037 Tromsø, Norway
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 January 2013 / Revised: 18 March 2013 / Accepted: 20 March 2013 / Published: 26 March 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Signal Transduction)
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Abstract

Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways are implicated in several cellular processes including proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, cell survival, cell motility, metabolism, stress response and inflammation. MAPK pathways transmit and convert a plethora of extracellular signals by three consecutive phosphorylation events involving a MAPK kinase kinase, a MAPK kinase, and a MAPK. In turn MAPKs phosphorylate substrates, including other protein kinases referred to as MAPK-activated protein kinases (MAPKAPKs). Eleven mammalian MAPKAPKs have been identified: ribosomal-S6-kinases (RSK1-4), mitogen- and stress-activated kinases (MSK1-2), MAPK-interacting kinases (MNK1-2), MAPKAPK-2 (MK2), MAPKAPK-3 (MK3), and MAPKAPK-5 (MK5). The role of these MAPKAPKs in inflammation will be reviewed.
Keywords: RSK; MSK; MNK; MK2; MK3; MK5; NF-kB; STAT3 RSK; MSK; MNK; MK2; MK3; MK5; NF-kB; STAT3
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Moens, U.; Kostenko, S.; Sveinbjørnsson, B. The Role of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase-Activated Protein Kinases (MAPKAPKs) in Inflammation. Genes 2013, 4, 101-133.

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