Cells 2014, 3(3), 690-701; doi:10.3390/cells3030690

Ubiquitin Signaling: Extreme Conservation as a Source of Diversity

1email, 2email and 1,* email
Received: 20 March 2014; in revised form: 20 June 2014 / Accepted: 1 July 2014 / Published: 10 July 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protein Ubiquitination)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Around 2 × 103–2.5 × 103 million years ago, a unicellular organism with radically novel features, ancestor of all eukaryotes, dwelt the earth. This organism, commonly referred as the last eukaryotic common ancestor, contained in its proteome the same functionally capable ubiquitin molecule that all eukaryotic species contain today. The fact that ubiquitin protein has virtually not changed during all eukaryotic evolution contrasts with the high expansion of the ubiquitin system, constituted by hundreds of enzymes, ubiquitin-interacting proteins, protein complexes, and cofactors. Interestingly, the simplest genetic arrangement encoding a fully-equipped ubiquitin signaling system is constituted by five genes organized in an operon-like cluster, and is found in archaea. How did ubiquitin achieve the status of central element in eukaryotic physiology? We analyze here the features of the ubiquitin molecule and the network that it conforms, and propose notions to explain the complexity of the ubiquitin signaling system in eukaryotic cells.
Keywords: ubiquitin; proteasome; protein degradation; evolution; eukaryotes
PDF Full-text Download PDF Full-Text [646 KB, uploaded 10 July 2014 09:48 CEST]

Export to BibTeX |

MDPI and ACS Style

Zuin, A.; Isasa, M.; Crosas, B. Ubiquitin Signaling: Extreme Conservation as a Source of Diversity. Cells 2014, 3, 690-701.

AMA Style

Zuin A, Isasa M, Crosas B. Ubiquitin Signaling: Extreme Conservation as a Source of Diversity. Cells. 2014; 3(3):690-701.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zuin, Alice; Isasa, Marta; Crosas, Bernat. 2014. "Ubiquitin Signaling: Extreme Conservation as a Source of Diversity." Cells 3, no. 3: 690-701.

Cells EISSN 2073-4409 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert