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An Enhanced ELISPOT Assay for Sensitive Detection of Antigen-Specific T Cell Responses to Borrelia burgdorferi
Department of Immunology, Pharmasan Labs, Inc., Osceola, WI 54020, USA
Cellular Technology Limited, Shaker Heights, OH 44122, USA
NeuroScience, Inc., Osceola, WI 54020, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 July 2013; in revised form: 30 August 2013 / Accepted: 4 September 2013 / Published: 13 September 2013
Abstract: Lyme Borreliosis is an infectious disease caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi that is transmitted through the bite of infected ticks. Both B cell-mediated humoral immunity and T cell immunity develop during natural Borrelia infection. However, compared with humoral immunity, the T cell response to Borrelia infection has not been well elucidated. In this study, a novel T cell-based assay was developed and validated for the sensitive detection of antigen-specific T cell response to B. burgdorferi. Using interferon-g as a biomarker, we developed a new enzyme-linked immunospot method (iSpot Lyme™) to detect Borrelia antigen-specific effector/memory T cells that were activated in vivo by exposing them to recombinant Borrelia antigens ex vivo. To test this new method as a potential laboratory diagnostic tool, we performed a clinical study with a cohort of Borrelia positive patients and healthy controls. We demonstrated that the iSpot Lyme assay has a significantly higher specificity and sensitivity compared with the Western Blot assay that is currently used as a diagnostic measure. A comprehensive evaluation of the T cell response to Borrelia infection should, therefore, provide new insights into the pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of Lyme disease.
Keywords: Borrelia infection; T cells; interferon-γ; ELISPOT
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Jin, C.; Roen, D.R.; Lehmann, P.V.; Kellermann, G.H. An Enhanced ELISPOT Assay for Sensitive Detection of Antigen-Specific T Cell Responses to Borrelia burgdorferi. Cells 2013, 2, 607-620.
Jin C, Roen DR, Lehmann PV, Kellermann GH. An Enhanced ELISPOT Assay for Sensitive Detection of Antigen-Specific T Cell Responses to Borrelia burgdorferi. Cells. 2013; 2(3):607-620.
Jin, Chenggang; Roen, Diana R.; Lehmann, Paul V.; Kellermann, Gottfried H. 2013. "An Enhanced ELISPOT Assay for Sensitive Detection of Antigen-Specific T Cell Responses to Borrelia burgdorferi." Cells 2, no. 3: 607-620.