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Cells 2013, 2(3), 591-606; doi:10.3390/cells2030591
Review

Fluorescein Derivatives in Intravital Fluorescence Imaging

1,* , 2 and 1,3
Received: 14 June 2013 / Revised: 25 July 2013 / Accepted: 26 July 2013 / Published: 2 August 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Imaging in Cell Biology and Development)
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Abstract

Intravital fluorescence microscopy enables the direct imaging of fluorophores in vivo and advanced techniques such as fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) enable the simultaneous detection of multiple fluorophores. Consequently, it is now possible to record distribution and metabolism of a chemical in vivo and to optimise the delivery of fluorophores in vivo. Recent clinical applications with fluorescein and other intravital fluorescent stains have occurred in neurosurgery, dermatology [including photodynamic therapy (PDT)] and endomicroscopy. Potential uses have been identified in periodontal disease, skin graft and cancer surgery. Animal studies have demonstrated that diseased tissue can be specifically stained with fluorophore conjugates. This review focuses on the fluorescein derived fluorophores in common clinical use and provides examples of novel applications from studies in tissue samples.
Keywords: intravital; FLIM; fluorescein intravital; FLIM; fluorescein
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Robertson, T.A.; Bunel, F.; Roberts, M.S. Fluorescein Derivatives in Intravital Fluorescence Imaging. Cells 2013, 2, 591-606.

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