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Fluorescein Derivatives in Intravital Fluorescence Imaging
Therapeutics Research Centre, School of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences, Division of Health Sciences, University of South Australia and Basil Hetzel Institute for Medical Research, GPO Box 2471, Adelaide, SA, 5001, Australia
Université Libre de Bruxelles, Campus Plaine CP205, Boulevard du Triomphe, 1050 Bruxelles, Belgium
Therapeutics Research Centre, School of Medicine, The University of Queensland, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Woolloongabba, QLD, 4102, Australia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 June 2013; in revised form: 25 July 2013 / Accepted: 26 July 2013 / Published: 2 August 2013
Abstract: Intravital fluorescence microscopy enables the direct imaging of fluorophores in vivo and advanced techniques such as fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) enable the simultaneous detection of multiple fluorophores. Consequently, it is now possible to record distribution and metabolism of a chemical in vivo and to optimise the delivery of fluorophores in vivo. Recent clinical applications with fluorescein and other intravital fluorescent stains have occurred in neurosurgery, dermatology [including photodynamic therapy (PDT)] and endomicroscopy. Potential uses have been identified in periodontal disease, skin graft and cancer surgery. Animal studies have demonstrated that diseased tissue can be specifically stained with fluorophore conjugates. This review focuses on the fluorescein derived fluorophores in common clinical use and provides examples of novel applications from studies in tissue samples.
Keywords: intravital; FLIM; fluorescein
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Robertson, T.A.; Bunel, F.; Roberts, M.S. Fluorescein Derivatives in Intravital Fluorescence Imaging. Cells 2013, 2, 591-606.
Robertson TA, Bunel F, Roberts MS. Fluorescein Derivatives in Intravital Fluorescence Imaging. Cells. 2013; 2(3):591-606.
Robertson, Thomas A.; Bunel, Florestan; Roberts, Michael S. 2013. "Fluorescein Derivatives in Intravital Fluorescence Imaging." Cells 2, no. 3: 591-606.