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Agronomy 2014, 4(2), 217-241; doi:10.3390/agronomy4020217
Article

Phenotypic Diversity of Farmers’ Traditional Rice Varieties in the Philippines

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Received: 22 October 2013 / Revised: 29 April 2014 / Accepted: 5 May 2014 / Published: 13 May 2014
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Abstract

Traditional rice varieties maintained and cultivated by farmers are likely sources of germplasm for breeding new rice varieties. They possess traits potentially adaptable to a wide range of abiotic and biotic stresses. Characterization of these germplasms is essential in rice breeding and provides valued information on developing new rice cultivars. In this study, 307 traditional rice varieties newly conserved at the PhilRice genebank were characterized to assess their phenotypic diversity using 57 morphological traits. Using the standardized Shannon-Weaver diversity index, phenotypic diversity indices averaged at 0.73 and 0.45 for quantitative and qualitative traits, respectively. Correlation analyses among agro-morphological traits showed a high positive correlation in some traits such as culm number and panicle number, flag leaf width and leaf blade width, grain width and caryopsis width. Cluster analysis separated the different varieties into various groups. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that seven independent principal components accounted for 74.95% of the total variation. Component loadings for each principal component showed morphological characters, such as culm number, panicle number and caryopsis ratio that were among the phenotypic traits contributing positive projections in three principal components that explained 48% of variation. Analyses of results showed high diversity in major traits assessed in farmers’ rice varieties. Based on plant height and maturity, 11 accessions could be potential donor parents in a rice breeding program. Future collection trips and characterization studies would further enrich diversity, in particular traits low in diversity, such as anthocyanin coloration, awn presence, awn color, culm habit, panicle type and panicle branching.
Keywords: rice germplasm; phenotypic diversity; traditional rice varieties; diversity index; germplasm conservation; morphological characterization rice germplasm; phenotypic diversity; traditional rice varieties; diversity index; germplasm conservation; morphological characterization
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Rabara, R.C.; Ferrer, M.C.; Diaz, C.L.; Newingham, M.C.V.; Romero, G.O. Phenotypic Diversity of Farmers’ Traditional Rice Varieties in the Philippines. Agronomy 2014, 4, 217-241.

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