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Agronomy 2014, 4(1), 74-89; doi:10.3390/agronomy4010074

Biological Control of the Weed Hemp Sesbania (Sesbania exaltata) in Rice (Oryza sativa) by the Fungus Myrothecium verrucaria

1
USDA-ARS, Biological Control of Pests Research Unit, Stoneville, MS, 38776, USA
2
USDA-ARS, Crop Production Systems Research Unit, Stoneville, MS, 38776, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 October 2013 / Revised: 7 November 2013 / Accepted: 17 January 2014 / Published: 27 January 2014
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Abstract

In greenhouse and field experiments, a mycelial formulation of the fungus Myrothecium verrucaria (IMI 361690) containing 0.20% Silwet L-77 surfactant exhibited high bioherbicidal efficacy against the problematic weed hemp sesbania. Infection and mortality levels of 100% of hemp sesbania seedlings occurred within 48 h after fungal application in the greenhouse. In rice field tests conducted over a three year period, M. verrucaria at an inoculum concentration of 50 g L−1 (dry mycelium equivalent) controlled 95% of ≤20 cm tall hemp sesbania plants. M. verrucaria also controlled larger plants (≥60 cm tall) using this high inoculum concentration. This level of weed control, as well as rice yields from plots where weeds were effectively controlled, were similar to those which occurred with the herbicide acifluorfen. These results suggest that a mycelial formulation of M. verrucaria has potential as a bioherbicide for controlling hemp sesbania in rice. View Full-Text
Keywords: bioherbicide; biocontrol; hemp sesbania; Myrothecium verrucaria; mycelial formulation bioherbicide; biocontrol; hemp sesbania; Myrothecium verrucaria; mycelial formulation
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Boyette, C.D.; Hoagland, R.E.; Stetina, K.C. Biological Control of the Weed Hemp Sesbania (Sesbania exaltata) in Rice (Oryza sativa) by the Fungus Myrothecium verrucaria. Agronomy 2014, 4, 74-89.

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