Next Article in Journal
Next Article in Special Issue
Previous Article in Journal
Previous Article in Special Issue
Agronomy 2013, 3(3), 550-570; doi:10.3390/agronomy3030550
Discussion

The Cysteine Protease–Cysteine Protease Inhibitor System Explored in Soybean Nodule Development

1,†
, 2,†
, 1
, 1
, 2
, 3
, 4
, 2
 and 4,*
Received: 29 May 2013; in revised form: 12 July 2013 / Accepted: 22 July 2013 / Published: 20 August 2013
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [931 KB, updated 21 August 2013; original version uploaded 20 August 2013]
Abstract: Almost all protease families have been associated with plant development, particularly senescence, which is the final developmental stage of every organ before cell death. Proteolysis remobilizes and recycles nitrogen from senescent organs that is required, for example, seed development. Senescence-associated expression of proteases has recently been characterized using large-scale gene expression analysis seeking to identify and characterize senescence-related genes. Increasing activities of proteolytic enzymes, particularly cysteine proteases, are observed during the senescence of legume nodules, in which a symbiotic relationship between the host plant and bacteria (Rhizobia) facilitate the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen. It is generally considered that cysteine proteases are compartmentalized to prevent uncontrolled proteolysis in nitrogen-fixing nodules. In addition, the activities of cysteine proteases are regulated by endogenous cysteine protease inhibitors called cystatins. These small proteins form reversible complexes with cysteine proteases, leading to inactivation. However, very little is currently known about how the cysteine protease-cysteine protease inhibitor (cystatin) system is regulated during nodule development. Moreover, our current understanding of the expression and functions of proteases and protease inhibitors in nodules is fragmented. To address this issue, we have summarized the current knowledge and techniques used for studying proteases and their inhibitors including the application of “omics” tools, with a particular focus on changes in the cysteine protease-cystatin system during nodule development.
Keywords: soybean nodules; cysteine proteases; cystatins; nodule development; senescence; Glycine max soybean nodules; cysteine proteases; cystatins; nodule development; senescence; Glycine max
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Vorster, B.J.; Schlüter, U.; du Plessis, M.; van Wyk, S.; Makgopa, M.E.; Ncube, I.; Quain, M.D.; Kunert, K.; Foyer, C.H. The Cysteine Protease–Cysteine Protease Inhibitor System Explored in Soybean Nodule Development. Agronomy 2013, 3, 550-570.

AMA Style

Vorster BJ, Schlüter U, du Plessis M, van Wyk S, Makgopa ME, Ncube I, Quain MD, Kunert K, Foyer CH. The Cysteine Protease–Cysteine Protease Inhibitor System Explored in Soybean Nodule Development. Agronomy. 2013; 3(3):550-570.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Vorster, Barend J.; Schlüter, Urte; du Plessis, Magdeleen; van Wyk, Stefan; Makgopa, Matome E.; Ncube, Ignatious; Quain, Marian D.; Kunert, Karl; Foyer, Christine H. 2013. "The Cysteine Protease–Cysteine Protease Inhibitor System Explored in Soybean Nodule Development." Agronomy 3, no. 3: 550-570.

Agronomy EISSN 2073-4395 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert