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Development of Genomic Resources in the Species of Trifolium L. and Its Application in Forage Legume Breeding
Institute of Biological, Environmental and Rural Sciences (IBERS), Aberystwyth University, Gogerddan, Aberystwyth SY23 3EB, UK
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 February 2012; in revised form: 25 April 2012 / Accepted: 27 April 2012 / Published: 9 May 2012
Abstract: Clovers (genus Trifolium) are a large and widespread genus of legumes. A number of clovers are of agricultural importance as forage crops in grassland agriculture, particularly temperate areas. White clover (Trifolium repens L.) is used in grazed pasture and red clover (T. pratense L.) is widely cut and conserved as a winter feed. For the diploid red clover, genetic and genomic tools and resources have developed rapidly over the last five years including genetic and physical maps, BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome) end sequence and transcriptome sequence information. This has paved the way for the use of genome wide selection and high throughput phenotyping in germplasm development. For the allotetraploid white clover progress has been slower although marker assisted selection is in use and relatively robust genetic maps and QTL (quantitative trait locus) information now exist. For both species the sequencing of the model legume Medicago truncatula gene space is an important development to aid genomic, biological and evolutionary studies. The first genetic maps of another species, subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum L.) have also been published and its comparative genomics with red clover and M. truncatula conducted. Next generation sequencing brings the potential to revolutionize clover genomics, but international consortia and effective use of germplasm, novel population structures and phenomics will be required to carry out effective translation into breeding. Another avenue for clover genomic and genetic improvement is interspecific hybridization. This approach has considerable potential with regard to crop improvement but also opens windows of opportunity for studies of biological and evolutionary processes.
Keywords: breeding; clover; genetics; genomics; interspecific hybrids; QTL
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Ravagnani, A.; Abberton, M.T.; Skøt, L. Development of Genomic Resources in the Species of Trifolium L. and Its Application in Forage Legume Breeding. Agronomy 2012, 2, 116-131.
Ravagnani A, Abberton MT, Skøt L. Development of Genomic Resources in the Species of Trifolium L. and Its Application in Forage Legume Breeding. Agronomy. 2012; 2(2):116-131.
Ravagnani, Adriana; Abberton, Michael T.; Skøt, Leif. 2012. "Development of Genomic Resources in the Species of Trifolium L. and Its Application in Forage Legume Breeding." Agronomy 2, no. 2: 116-131.