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Polymers 2017, 9(6), 223; doi:10.3390/polym9060223

Tannin-Based Copolymer Resins: Synthesis and Characterization by Solid State 13C NMR and FT-IR Spectroscopy

Forest Product Technology & Timber Construction Department, Salzburg University of Applied Sciences, Marktstraße 136a, 5431 Kuchl, Austria
Academic Editors: Helmut Schlaad and Naozumi Teramoto
Received: 10 May 2017 / Revised: 9 June 2017 / Accepted: 11 June 2017 / Published: 13 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio-inspired and Bio-based Polymers)
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Abstract

In recent years, the interest for bio-sources is rising exponentially and tannins extracts are one of the most interesting, easily-available, phenolic building blocks. The condensed tannins or proanthocyanidins are already known for their polymerization chemistry, which is the basis for several natural-based materials (e.g., adhesives, foams). In the present work we aim to observe the behavior of the extract of Acacia Mimosa (Acacia mearnsii) when reacted with several possible co-monomers at different relative amount, pH and temperature conditions. The more insoluble copolymers obtained with formaldehyde, hexamine, glyoxal, maleic anhydride, furfural and furfuryl alcohol were analyzed through solid state 13C NMR (Nuclear magnetic resonance) and FT-IR (Fourier Transform-Infrared) spectroscopy. The 13C NMR afforded the opportunity to detect: (i) aromatic substitutions and consequent poly-condensations for the majority of the hardeners studied; (ii) acylation for the maleic anhydride and also some; (iii) Diels–Alder arrangements for the furanic co-monomers; the FT-IR spectroscopy suggested that the formaldehyde and hexamine copolymers present a higher cross-linking degree. View Full-Text
Keywords: natural macromolecules; flavonoids; black wattle; curing; green chemistry; nuclear magnetic resonance; infrared natural macromolecules; flavonoids; black wattle; curing; green chemistry; nuclear magnetic resonance; infrared
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Tondi, G. Tannin-Based Copolymer Resins: Synthesis and Characterization by Solid State 13C NMR and FT-IR Spectroscopy. Polymers 2017, 9, 223.

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