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Polymers 2017, 9(12), 675; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym9120675

Effects of Particle Size on the Morphology and Water- and Thermo-Resistance of Washed Cottonseed Meal-Based Wood Adhesives

1
Southern Regional Research Center, USDA-ARS, 1100 Robert E Lee Blvd., New Orleans, LA 70124, USA
2
Eastern Regional Research Center, USDA-ARS, 600 East Mermaid Lane, Wyndmoor, PA 19038, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 October 2017 / Revised: 28 November 2017 / Accepted: 30 November 2017 / Published: 5 December 2017
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Abstract

Water washing of cottonseed meal is more cost-efficient and environmentally friendly than protein isolation by means of alkaline extraction and acidic precipitation. Thus, water-washed cottonseed meal (WCSM) is more promising as biobased wood adhesives. In this work, we examined the effects of the particle size on the morphology and adhesive performance of WCSM. Pilot-scale produced and dried WCSM was treated by three grinding methods: (1) ground by a hammer mill and passed through a 0.5-mm screen, (2) further ground by a cyclone mill and passed through a 0.5-mm screen, or (3) further ground by a ball mill and passed through a 0.18-mm screen. Micro-morphological examination revealed two types of particles. The filament-like particles were mainly fibrous materials from residual linters. Chunk-like particles were more like aggregates or accumulations of small particles, with proteins as the major component. Further grinding of the 0.5-mm Hammer product with the Cyclone and Ball mill led to more fine (smaller) particles in the WCSM products. The impact of further grinding on the dry and soaked adhesive strengths was minimal. However, the decrease of the hot and wet strengths of WCSM products by the additional grinding was significant (p ≤ 0.05). Data presented in this work is useful in developing the industrial standards of WCSM products used in wood bonding. View Full-Text
Keywords: biobased adhesive; cottonseed; Douglas fir; heat resistance; water resistance; white oak biobased adhesive; cottonseed; Douglas fir; heat resistance; water resistance; white oak
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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He, Z.; Cheng, H.N.; Klasson, K.T.; Olanya, O.M.; Uknalis, J. Effects of Particle Size on the Morphology and Water- and Thermo-Resistance of Washed Cottonseed Meal-Based Wood Adhesives. Polymers 2017, 9, 675.

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