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Polymers 2017, 9(12), 671; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym9120671

Hydrogels for Cartilage Regeneration, from Polysaccharides to Hybrids

1
Instituto Politécnico Nacional-ESIQIE, Depto. Ing. en Metalurgia y Materiales, UPALM-Zacatenco, Mexico City 07738, Mexico
2
Networking Biomedical Research Centre in Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red—Bioingeniería, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN), Av. Monforte de Lemos 3-5, Pabellón 11, Planta 0, 28029 Madrid, Spain
3
Department Polymeric Nanomaterials and Biomaterials, ICTP-CSIC, Juan de la Cierva 3, 28006 Madrid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 October 2017 / Revised: 24 November 2017 / Accepted: 29 November 2017 / Published: 4 December 2017
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Abstract

The aims of this paper are: (1) to review the current state of the art in the field of cartilage substitution and regeneration; (2) to examine the patented biomaterials being used in preclinical and clinical stages; (3) to explore the potential of polymeric hydrogels for these applications and the reasons that hinder their clinical success. The studies about hydrogels used as potential biomaterials selected for this review are divided into the two major trends in tissue engineering: (1) the use of cell-free biomaterials; and (2) the use of cell seeded biomaterials. Preparation techniques and resulting hydrogel properties are also reviewed. More recent proposals, based on the combination of different polymers and the hybridization process to improve the properties of these materials, are also reviewed. The combination of elements such as scaffolds (cellular solids), matrices (hydrogel-based), growth factors and mechanical stimuli is needed to optimize properties of the required materials in order to facilitate tissue formation, cartilage regeneration and final clinical application. Polymer combinations and hybrids are the most promising materials for this application. Hybrid scaffolds may maximize cell growth and local tissue integration by forming cartilage-like tissue with biomimetic features. View Full-Text
Keywords: cartilage regeneration; polymeric hydrogels; polysaccharides; hybrid hydrogels; hybrid scaffolds cartilage regeneration; polymeric hydrogels; polysaccharides; hybrid hydrogels; hybrid scaffolds
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Sánchez-Téllez, D.A.; Téllez-Jurado, L.; Rodríguez-Lorenzo, L.M. Hydrogels for Cartilage Regeneration, from Polysaccharides to Hybrids. Polymers 2017, 9, 671.

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