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Polymers 2016, 8(5), 193; doi:10.3390/polym8050193

Differentiation of Dental Pulp Stem Cells on Gutta-Percha Scaffolds

1
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA
2
Department of Endodontics, School of Dental Medicine, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA
3
Department of Restorative Dentistry and Biomaterials Sciences, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, Harvard University, Boston, MA 02115, USA
4
Advanced Energy Research & Technology Center, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA
5
Department of Oral Biology and Pathology, School of Dental Medicine, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jianxun Ding
Received: 8 April 2016 / Revised: 3 May 2016 / Accepted: 4 May 2016 / Published: 13 May 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Polymers for Medical Applications)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [6133 KB, uploaded 13 May 2016]   |  

Abstract

Advances in treatment of tooth injury have shown that tooth regeneration from the pulp was a viable alternative of root canal therapy. In this study, we demonstrated that Gutta-percha, nanocomposites primarily used for obturation of the canal, are not cytotoxic and can induce differentiation of dental pulp stem cells (DPSC) in the absence of soluble mediators. Flat scaffolds were obtained by spin coating Si wafers with three Gutta-percha compounds: GuttaCore™, ProTaper™, and Lexicon™. The images of annealed surfaces showed that the nanoparticles were encapsulated, forming surfaces with root mean square (RMS) roughness of 136–211 nm. Then, by culturing DPSC on these substrates we found that after some initial difficulty in adhesion, confluent tissues were formed after 21 days. Imaging of the polyisoprene (PI) surfaces showed that biomineral deposition only occurred when dexamethasone was present in the media. Spectra obtained from the minerals was consistent with that of hydroxyapatite (HA). In contrast, HA deposition was observed on all Gutta-percha scaffolds regardless of the presence or absence of dexamethasone, implying that surface roughness may be an enabling factor in the differentiation process. These results indicate that Gutta-percha nanocomposites may be good candidates for pulp regeneration therapy. View Full-Text
Keywords: biomaterials; polymer nanocomposite; stem cells; cell differentiation; regeneration; cell-matrix interaction biomaterials; polymer nanocomposite; stem cells; cell differentiation; regeneration; cell-matrix interaction
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhang, L.; Yu, Y.; Joubert, C.; Bruder, G.; Liu, Y.; Chang, C.-C.; Simon, M.; Walker, S.G.; Rafailovich, M. Differentiation of Dental Pulp Stem Cells on Gutta-Percha Scaffolds. Polymers 2016, 8, 193.

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