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Polymers 2018, 10(3), 316; doi:10.3390/polym10030316

Comparative Study of Ex Vivo Transmucosal Permeation of Pioglitazone Nanoparticles for the Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease

Department of Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical Technology and Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy and Food Sciences, University of Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona, Spain
Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (IN2UB), University of Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona, Spain
Departamento de Química y Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja, Loja 1101608, Ecuador
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 February 2018 / Revised: 11 March 2018 / Accepted: 13 March 2018 / Published: 14 March 2018
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Pioglitazone has been reported in the literature to have a substantial role in the improvement of overall cognition in a mouse model. With this in mind, the aim of this study was to determine the most efficacious route for the administration of Pioglitazone nanoparticles (PGZ-NPs) in order to promote drug delivery to the brain for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. PGZ-loaded NPs were developed by the solvent displacement method. Parameters such as mean size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, encapsulation efficacy, rheological behavior, and short-term stability were evaluated. Ex vivo permeation studies were then carried out using buccal, sublingual, nasal, and intestinal mucosa. PGZ-NPs with a size around of 160 nm showed high permeability in all mucosae. However, the permeation and prediction parameters revealed that lag-time and vehicle/tissue partition coefficient of nasal mucosa were significantly lower than other studied mucosae, while the diffusion coefficient and theoretical steady-state plasma concentration of the drug were higher, providing biopharmaceutical results that reveal more favorable PGZ permeation through the nasal mucosa. The results suggest that nasal mucosa represents an attractive and non-invasive pathway for PGZ-NPs administration to the brain since the drug permeation was demonstrated to be more favorable in this tissue. View Full-Text
Keywords: nanoparticles; pioglitazone; PLGA-PEG; transmucosal permeations; Alzheimer’s disease nanoparticles; pioglitazone; PLGA-PEG; transmucosal permeations; Alzheimer’s disease

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Silva-Abreu, M.; Espinoza, L.C.; Halbaut, L.; Espina, M.; García, M.L.; Calpena, A.C. Comparative Study of Ex Vivo Transmucosal Permeation of Pioglitazone Nanoparticles for the Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease. Polymers 2018, 10, 316.

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