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Polymers 2018, 10(3), 317; doi:10.3390/polym10030317

Preparation and Application of Phosphorylated Xylan as a Flocculant for Cationic Ethyl Violet Dye

Key Laboratory of Pulp & Paper Science and Technology Ministry of Education, Qilu University of Technology (Shandong Academy of Sciences), Jinan 250353, China
Department of Chemical Engineering, Lakehead University, Thunder Bay, ON P7B 5E1, Canada
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 February 2018 / Revised: 10 March 2018 / Accepted: 12 March 2018 / Published: 14 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymers for Modern and Advanced Engineering Applications)
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In this study, phosphorylated birchwood xylan was produced under alkali conditions using trisodium trimetaphosphate. Three single-factor experiments were used to explore the influences of time, temperature, and the molar ratio of trisodium trimetaphosphate to xylan on the degree of substitution (DS) and charge density of xylan. The response surface methodology was used to explore the interaction of these three factors. Phosphorylated xylan with a maximum DS of 0.79 and a charge density of −3.40 mmol/g was produced under the optimal conditions of 80 °C, 4 h, and a molar ratio of xylan/sodium trimetaphosphate (STMP) of 1/3. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), ascorbic acid method analyses, and inductively coupled plasma–atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES) analyses confirmed that the phosphate groups were successfully attached to xylan. Thermogravimetric analysis confirmed that phosphorylated xylan was less stable than birchwood xylan. Furthermore, the phosphorylated xylan was applied as a flocculant for removing ethyl violet dye from a simulated dye solution. The results indicated that more than 95% of the dye was removed from the solution. The theoretical and experimental values of charge neutralization for the dye removal were close to one another, confirming that charge neutralization was the main mechanism for the interaction of dye and phosphorylated xylan. The impacts of salts on the flocculation efficiency of phosphorylated xylan were also analyzed. View Full-Text
Keywords: xylan; phosphorylated xylan; dye removal; flocculation xylan; phosphorylated xylan; dye removal; flocculation

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Liu, Z.; Xu, D.; Xia, N.; Zhao, X.; Kong, F.; Wang, S.; Fatehi, P. Preparation and Application of Phosphorylated Xylan as a Flocculant for Cationic Ethyl Violet Dye. Polymers 2018, 10, 317.

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