Next Article in Journal
Enhancing Light Extraction of Inorganic Scintillators Using Photonic Crystals
Previous Article in Journal
Tetra-, Penta- and Hexa-Coordinated Transition Metal Complexes Constructed from Coumarin-Containing N2O2 Ligand
Previous Article in Special Issue
Recent Insights into the Crystallization Process; Protein Crystal Nucleation and Growth Peculiarities; Processes in the Presence of Electric Fields
Article Menu
Issue 2 (February) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Crystals 2018, 8(2), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst8020076

A Graphene-Based Microfluidic Platform for Electrocrystallization and In Situ X-ray Diffraction

Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Massachusetts Amherst, MA 01003, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 December 2017 / Revised: 20 January 2018 / Accepted: 30 January 2018 / Published: 1 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protein Crystallization under the Presence of an Electric Field)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3731 KB, uploaded 1 February 2018]   |  

Abstract

Here, we describe a novel microfluidic platform for use in electrocrystallization experiments. The device incorporates ultra-thin graphene-based films as electrodes and as X-ray transparent windows to enable in situ X-ray diffraction analysis. Furthermore, large-area graphene films serve as a gas barrier, creating a stable sample environment over time. We characterize different methods for fabricating graphene electrodes, and validate the electrical capabilities of our device through the use of methyl viologen, a redox-sensitive dye. Proof-of-concept electrocrystallization experiments using an internal electric field at constant potential were performed using hen egg-white lysozyme (HEWL) as a model system. We observed faster nucleation and crystal growth, as well as a higher signal-to-noise for diffraction data obtained from crystals prepared in the presence of an applied electric field. Although this work is focused on the electrocrystallization of proteins for structural biology, we anticipate that this technology should also find utility in a broad range of both X-ray technologies and other applications of microfluidic technology. View Full-Text
Keywords: microfluidics; electrocrystallization; protein crystallization; in situ diffraction; serial crystallography microfluidics; electrocrystallization; protein crystallization; in situ diffraction; serial crystallography
Figures

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Sui, S.; Wang, Y.; Dimitrakopoulos, C.; Perry, S.L. A Graphene-Based Microfluidic Platform for Electrocrystallization and In Situ X-ray Diffraction. Crystals 2018, 8, 76.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Crystals EISSN 2073-4352 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top