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Crystals 2017, 7(2), 23; doi:10.3390/cryst7020023

Control of Intrinsic Defects in Lithium Niobate Single Crystal for Optoelectronic Applications

1
Crystal Growth Laboratory, Laser Materials Section, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013, India
2
Homi Bhabha National Institute, Training School Complex, Anushakti Nagar, Mumbai 400094, India
3
X-ray Scattering and Crystal Growth Section, Condensed Matter Physics Division, Material Science Group, IGCAR, Kalpakkam 603102, India
4
TBM Division, Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428, India
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Alain Largeteau and Mythili Prakasam
Received: 9 December 2016 / Revised: 5 January 2017 / Accepted: 6 January 2017 / Published: 24 January 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crystal Growth for Optoelectronic and Piezoelectric Applications)
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Abstract

A single crystal of lithium niobate is an important optoelectronic material. It can be grown from direct melt only in a lithium deficient non-stoichiometric form as its stoichiometric composition exhibits incongruent melting. As a result it contains a number of intrinsic point defects such as Li-vacancies, Nb antisites, oxygen vacancies, as well as different types of polarons and bipolarons. All these defects adversely influence its optical and ferroelectric properties and pose a deterrent to the effective use of this material. Hence, controlling the defects in lithium niobate has been an exciting topic of research and development over the years. In this article we discuss the different methods of controlling the intrinsic defects in lithium niobate and a comparison of the effect of these methods on the crystalline quality, stoichiometry, optical absorption in the UV-vis region, electronic band-gap, and refractive index. View Full-Text
Keywords: lithium niobate; single crystal; stoichiometry; defect; optoelectronics; non-linear optics lithium niobate; single crystal; stoichiometry; defect; optoelectronics; non-linear optics
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Bhatt, R.; Bhaumik, I.; Ganesamoorthy, S.; Bright, R.; Soharab, M.; Karnal, A.K.; Gupta, P.K. Control of Intrinsic Defects in Lithium Niobate Single Crystal for Optoelectronic Applications. Crystals 2017, 7, 23.

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