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Crystals 2017, 7(2), 38; doi:10.3390/cryst7020038

Hydrothermal Crystal Growth of Piezoelectric α-Quartz Phase of AO2 (A = Ge, Si) and MXO4 (M = Al, Ga, Fe and X = P, As): A Historical Overview

Institut Charles Gerhardt Montpellier, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Université de Montpellier, Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Montpellier, Montpellier 34095 Cedex 05, France
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Academic Editors: Alain Largeteau and Mythili Prakasam
Received: 19 November 2016 / Revised: 19 January 2017 / Accepted: 25 January 2017 / Published: 4 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crystal Growth for Optoelectronic and Piezoelectric Applications)
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Abstract

Quartz is the most frequently used piezoelectric material. Single crystals are industrially grown by the hydrothermal route under super-critical conditions (150 MPa-623 K). This paper is an overview of the hydrothermal crystal growth of the AO2 and MXO4 α-quartz isotypes. All of the studies on the crystal growth of this family of materials enable some general and schematic conclusions to be made concerning the influence of different parameters for growing these α-quartz-type materials with different chemical compositions. The solubility of the material is the main parameter, which governs both thermodynamic parameters, P and T, of the crystal growth. Then, depending on the chemistry of the α-quartz-type phase, different parameters have to be considered with the aim of obtaining the basic building units (BBU) of the crystals in solution responsible for the growth of the α-quartz-type phase. A schematic method is proposed, based on the main parameter governing the crystal growth of the α-quartz phase. All of the crystal growth processes have been classified according to four routes: classical, solute-induced, seed-induced and solvent-induced crystal growth. View Full-Text
Keywords: hydrothermal crystal growth; α-quartz isotypes; basic building units (BBU) of the crystal; nucleation; homo-epitaxy; hetero-epitaxy; solute; seed; solvent hydrothermal crystal growth; α-quartz isotypes; basic building units (BBU) of the crystal; nucleation; homo-epitaxy; hetero-epitaxy; solute; seed; solvent
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Cambon, O.; Haines, J. Hydrothermal Crystal Growth of Piezoelectric α-Quartz Phase of AO2 (A = Ge, Si) and MXO4 (M = Al, Ga, Fe and X = P, As): A Historical Overview. Crystals 2017, 7, 38.

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