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Crystals, Volume 6, Issue 6 (June 2016)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Phononic Crystal Plate with Hollow Pillars Actively Controlled by Fluid Filling
Crystals 2016, 6(6), 64; doi:10.3390/cryst6060064
Received: 6 April 2016 / Revised: 14 May 2016 / Accepted: 19 May 2016 / Published: 24 May 2016
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (4944 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We investigate theoretically the properties of phononic crystal plates with hollow pillars. Such crystals can exhibit confined whispering gallery modes around the hollow parts of the pillars whose localization can be increased by separating the pillar from the plate by a full cylinder.
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We investigate theoretically the properties of phononic crystal plates with hollow pillars. Such crystals can exhibit confined whispering gallery modes around the hollow parts of the pillars whose localization can be increased by separating the pillar from the plate by a full cylinder. We discuss the behaviors of these modes and their potential applications in guiding and filtering. Filling the hollow parts with a fluid gives rise to new localized modes, which depend on the physical properties and height of the fluid. Thus, these modes can be actively controlled for the purpose of multichannel multiplexing. In particular, one can obtain localized modes associated with the compressional vibrations of the fluid along its height. They can be used for the purpose of sensing the acoustic properties of the fluid or their variations with temperature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phononic Crystals)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis and 3D Network Architecture of 1- and 16-Hydrated Salts of 4-Dimethylaminopyridinium Decavanadate, (DMAPH)6[V10O28nH2O
Crystals 2016, 6(6), 65; doi:10.3390/cryst6060065
Received: 13 May 2016 / Revised: 25 May 2016 / Accepted: 26 May 2016 / Published: 31 May 2016
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Abstract
Two hybrid materials based on decavanadates (DMAPH)6[V10O28]·H2O, (1) and (DMAPH)6[V10O28]·16H2O, (2) (where DMAPH = 4-dimethylaminopyridinium) were obtained by reactions under mild conditions at
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Two hybrid materials based on decavanadates (DMAPH)6[V10O28]·H2O, (1) and (DMAPH)6[V10O28]·16H2O, (2) (where DMAPH = 4-dimethylaminopyridinium) were obtained by reactions under mild conditions at T = 294 and 283 K, respectively. These compounds are pseudopolymorphs, which crystallize in monoclinic P 2 1 / n and triclinic P 1 ¯ space groups. The structural analysis revealed that in both compounds, six cations DMAPH+ interact with decavanadate anion through N-H∙∙∙Odec hydrogen bonds; in 2, the hydrogen-bonding association of sixteen lattice water molecules leads to the formation of an unusual network stabilized by decavanadate clusters; this hydrogen-bond connectivity is described using graph set notation. Compound 2 differs basically in the water content which in turn increases the π∙∙∙π interactions coming from pyridinium rings. Elemental and thermal analysis (TGA/DSC) as well as FT-IR, FT-Raman, for 1 and 2 are consistent with both structures and are also presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biomolecular Crystals)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Molecular Structures of the Lowest Melting Odd- and Even-Numbered α,β-Unsaturated Carboxylic Acids—(E)-Hept-2-Enoic Acid and (E)-Oct-2-Enoic Acid
Crystals 2016, 6(6), 66; doi:10.3390/cryst6060066
Received: 13 May 2016 / Revised: 27 May 2016 / Accepted: 31 May 2016 / Published: 3 June 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3957 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The molecular structures of the two lowest melting odd- and even-numbered α,β-unsaturated carboxylic acids—(E)-hept-2-enoic acid (C7) and (E)-oct-2-enoic acid (C8)—are herein reported. The title compounds were crystallized by slow evaporation of ethanolic solutions at
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The molecular structures of the two lowest melting odd- and even-numbered α,β-unsaturated carboxylic acids—(E)-hept-2-enoic acid (C7) and (E)-oct-2-enoic acid (C8)—are herein reported. The title compounds were crystallized by slow evaporation of ethanolic solutions at −30 °C. C7 crystallizes in the triclinic space group P 1 ¯ with two molecules in the unit cell and C8 in the monoclinic space group C2/c with eight molecules in the unit cell. The unit cell parameters for C7 are: a = 5.3049(2) Å, b = 6.6322(3) Å, c = 11.1428(5) Å, α = 103.972(3)°, β = 97.542(3)°, γ = 90.104(3)°, and V = 376.92(3) Å3 (T = 150(2) K). The unit cell parameters for C8 are: a = 19.032(10) Å, b = 9.368(5) Å, c = 11.520(6) Å, β = 123.033(11)°, and V = 1721.80(16) Å3 (T = 200(2) K). Full article
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Open AccessArticle Add-Drop Filter Based on Wavelength-Dependent Light Interlink between Lithium-Niobate Microwaveguide Chip and Microfiber Knot Ring
Crystals 2016, 6(6), 67; doi:10.3390/cryst6060067
Received: 31 March 2016 / Revised: 1 June 2016 / Accepted: 2 June 2016 / Published: 9 June 2016
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Abstract
In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate an add-drop filter based on wavelength-dependent light coupling between a lithium-niobate (LN) microwaveguide chip and a microfiber knot ring (MKR). The MKR was fabricated from a standard single-mode fiber, and the LN microwaveguide chip works as a
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In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate an add-drop filter based on wavelength-dependent light coupling between a lithium-niobate (LN) microwaveguide chip and a microfiber knot ring (MKR). The MKR was fabricated from a standard single-mode fiber, and the LN microwaveguide chip works as a robust substrate to support the MKR. The guided light can be transmitted through add and drop functionality and the behaviors of the add-drop filter can be clearly observed. Furthermore, its performance dependence on the MKR diameter is also studied experimentally. The approach, using a LN microwaveguide chip as a platform to couple and integrate the MKR, may enable us to realize an optical interlink between the microstructured chip and the micro/nano fiber-optic device. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lithium Niobate Crystals)
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Open AccessArticle Crystal Growth and Associated Properties of a Nonlinear Optical Crystal—Ba2Zn(BO3)2
Crystals 2016, 6(6), 68; doi:10.3390/cryst6060068
Received: 25 May 2016 / Revised: 8 June 2016 / Accepted: 10 June 2016 / Published: 15 June 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (2677 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Crystals of Ba2Zn(BO3)2 were grown by the top-seeded solution growth (TSSG) method. The optimum flux system for growing Ba2Zn(BO3)2 crystals was 2BaF2:2.5B2O3. The transmission spectra of a
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Crystals of Ba2Zn(BO3)2 were grown by the top-seeded solution growth (TSSG) method. The optimum flux system for growing Ba2Zn(BO3)2 crystals was 2BaF2:2.5B2O3. The transmission spectra of a (100)-orientated crystal indicated an absorption edge of 230 nm. Powder second-harmonic generation measurement revealed that Ba2Zn(BO3)2 can achieve type-I phase matching behavior at the fundamental wavelengths of 1064 and 532 nm respectively. The second-harmonic generating efficiency is around 0.85 and 0.58 times that of β-BaB2O4 when radiated with 1064 and 532 nm lasers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nonlinear Optical Crystals)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Crystal Structures of Two Novel O, N-Containing Spiro Compounds
Crystals 2016, 6(6), 69; doi:10.3390/cryst6060069
Received: 25 May 2016 / Revised: 13 June 2016 / Accepted: 13 June 2016 / Published: 15 June 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1348 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Two novel O, N-containing spiro compounds, C16H16ClNO4 (1) and C16H16N2O6 (2), were prepared by reactions of monosubstituted benzenamine (substituent = –NO2, –Cl) and
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Two novel O, N-containing spiro compounds, C16H16ClNO4 (1) and C16H16N2O6 (2), were prepared by reactions of monosubstituted benzenamine (substituent = –NO2, –Cl) and 1,5-dioxaspiro[5.5]undecane-2,4-dione in ethanol solution of trimethoxymethane. Their structures were characterized by elemental analysis, IR, UV-Vis and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Compound 1 is triclinic with space group P-1 and cell constants: a = 5.9448(12), b = 9.782(2), c = 13.480(3) Å, α = 100.28(3)°, β = 100.66(3)°, γ = 97.83(3)°, Mr = 321.75, V = 746.3(3) Å3, Z = 2, Dc = 1.432 g/cm3, F(000) = 336, μ(MoKa) = 0.274 mm−1, the final R = 0.0544 and wR = 0.1538. Compound 2 is monoclinic with space group P21/c and cell constants: a = 12.472(3), b = 11.856(2), c = 10.643(2) Å, β = 99.83(3)°, Mr = 332.31, V = 1550.7(5) Å3, Z = 4, Dc = 1.423 g/cm3, F(000) = 696, μ(MoKa) = 0.110 mm−1, the final R = 0.0444 and wR = 0.1187. In 1, there exist some intra- and inter-molecular hydrogen bonds and C–H···π supramolecular interactions, while there are still π···π stacking interactions except for some intra- and intermolecular hydrogen bonds in 2. Two compounds both form a three-dimensional network structure via above intermolecular interactions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Hydrogen Desorption Properties of Bulk and Nanoconfined LiBH4-NaAlH4
Crystals 2016, 6(6), 70; doi:10.3390/cryst6060070
Received: 10 April 2016 / Revised: 8 June 2016 / Accepted: 9 June 2016 / Published: 20 June 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (12231 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nanoconfinement of 2LiBH4-NaAlH4 into a mesoporous carbon aerogel scaffold with a pore size, BET surface area and total pore volume of Dmax = 30 nm, SBET = 689 m2/g and Vtot = 1.21 mL/g, respectively
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Nanoconfinement of 2LiBH4-NaAlH4 into a mesoporous carbon aerogel scaffold with a pore size, BET surface area and total pore volume of Dmax = 30 nm, SBET = 689 m2/g and Vtot = 1.21 mL/g, respectively is investigated. Nanoconfinement of 2LiBH4-NaAlH4 facilitates a reduction in the temperature of the hydrogen release by 132 °C, compared to that of bulk 2LiBH4-NaAlH4 and the onset of hydrogen release is below 100 °C. The reversible hydrogen storage capacity is also significantly improved for the nanoconfined sample, maintaining 83% of the initial hydrogen content after three cycles compared to 47% for that of the bulk sample. During nanoconfinement, LiBH4 and NaAlH4 reacts to form LiAlH4 and NaBH4 and the final dehydrogenation products, obtained at 481 °C are LiH, LiAl, AlB2 and Al. After rehydrogenation of the nanoconfined sample at T = 400 °C and p(H2) = 126 bar, amorphous NaBH4 is recovered along with unreacted LiH, AlB2 and Al and suggests that NaBH4 is the main compound that can reversibly release and uptake hydrogen. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Boron-Based (Nano-)Materials: Fundamentals and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Low-Temperature Coherent Thermal Conduction in Thin Phononic Crystal Membranes
Crystals 2016, 6(6), 72; doi:10.3390/cryst6060072
Received: 21 April 2016 / Revised: 13 June 2016 / Accepted: 16 June 2016 / Published: 22 June 2016
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (512 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In recent years, the idea of controlling phonon thermal transport coherently using phononic crystals has been introduced. Here, we extend our previous numerical studies of ballistic low-temperature heat transport in two-dimensional hole-array phononic crystals, and concentrate on the effect of the lattice periodicity.
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In recent years, the idea of controlling phonon thermal transport coherently using phononic crystals has been introduced. Here, we extend our previous numerical studies of ballistic low-temperature heat transport in two-dimensional hole-array phononic crystals, and concentrate on the effect of the lattice periodicity. We find that thermal conductance can be either enhanced or reduced by large factors, depending on the the lattice period. Analysis shows that both the density of states and the average group velocity are strongly affected by the periodic structuring. The largest effect for the reduction seen for larger period structures comes from the strong reduction of the group velocities, but a contribution also comes from the reduction of the density of states. For the short period structures, the enhancement is due to the enhanced density of states. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phononic Crystals)
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Open AccessArticle Control of Cellular Arrangement by Surface Topography Induced by Plastic Deformation
Crystals 2016, 6(6), 73; doi:10.3390/cryst6060073
Received: 30 April 2016 / Revised: 13 June 2016 / Accepted: 20 June 2016 / Published: 22 June 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3205 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The anisotropic microstructure of bone tissue is crucial for appropriate mechanical and biological functions of bone. We recently revealed that the construction of oriented bone matrix is established by osteoblast alignment; there is a quite unique correlation between cell alignment and cell-produced bone
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The anisotropic microstructure of bone tissue is crucial for appropriate mechanical and biological functions of bone. We recently revealed that the construction of oriented bone matrix is established by osteoblast alignment; there is a quite unique correlation between cell alignment and cell-produced bone matrix orientation governed by the molecular interactions between material surface and cells. Titanium and its alloys are one of the most attractive materials for biomedical applications. We previously succeeded in controlling cellular arrangement using the dislocations of a crystallographic slip system in titanium single crystals with hexagonal close-packing (hcp) crystal lattice. Here, we induced a specific surface topography by deformation twinning and dislocation motion to control cell orientation. Dislocation and deformation twinning were introduced into α-titanium polycrystals in compression, inducing a characteristic surface structure involving nanometer-scale highly concentrated twinning traces. The plastic deformation-induced surface topography strongly influenced osteoblast orientation, causing them to align preferentially along the slip and twinning traces. This surface morphology, exhibiting a characteristic grating structure, controlled the localization of focal adhesions and subsequent elongation of stress fibers in osteoblasts. These results indicate that cellular responses against dislocation and deformation twinning are useful for controlling osteoblast alignment and the resulting bone matrix anisotropy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crystal Dislocations)
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