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Indirect Exchange and Ruderman–Kittel–Kasuya–Yosida (RKKY) Interactions in Magnetically-Doped Graphene
School of Physics, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2, Ireland
Center for Nanostructured Graphene (CNG), DTU Nanotech, Department of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby 2800, Denmark
Centre for Research on Adaptive Nanostructures and Nanodevices (CRANN), Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2, Ireland
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 November 2012; in revised form: 13 December 2012 / Accepted: 9 January 2013 / Published: 30 January 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Graphenes
Abstract: Magnetically-doped graphene systems are potential candidates for application in future spintronic devices. A key step is to understand the pairwise interactions between magnetic impurities embedded in graphene that are mediated by the graphene conduction electrons. A large number of studies have been undertaken to investigate the indirect exchange, or RKKY (Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida), interactions in graphene. Many of these studies report a decay rate faster than expected for a two-dimensional material and the absence of the usual distance dependent oscillations. In this review we summarize the techniques used to calculate the interaction and present the key results obtained to date. The effects of more detailed parameterisations of the magnetic impurities and graphene host are considered, as are results obtained from ab initio calculations. Since the fast decay of the interaction presents an obstacle to spintronic applications, we focus in particular on the possibility of augmenting the interaction range by a number of methods including doping, spin precession and the application of strain.
Keywords: graphene; exchange interactions; RKKY; spintronics; magnetic impurities; magnetic interactions
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Power, S.R.; Ferreira, M.S. Indirect Exchange and Ruderman–Kittel–Kasuya–Yosida (RKKY) Interactions in Magnetically-Doped Graphene. Crystals 2013, 3, 49-78.
Power SR, Ferreira MS. Indirect Exchange and Ruderman–Kittel–Kasuya–Yosida (RKKY) Interactions in Magnetically-Doped Graphene. Crystals. 2013; 3(1):49-78.
Power, Stephen R.; Ferreira, Mauro S. 2013. "Indirect Exchange and Ruderman–Kittel–Kasuya–Yosida (RKKY) Interactions in Magnetically-Doped Graphene." Crystals 3, no. 1: 49-78.