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Catalysts 2017, 7(8), 237; doi:10.3390/catal7080237

Facile, One-Pot, Two-Step, Strategy for the Production of Potential Bio-Diesel Candidates from Fructose

1
State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029, China
2
Beijing Key Laboratory of Fuels Cleaning and Advanced Catalytic Emission Reduction Technology, Beijing Institute of Petrochemical Technology, Beijing 102617, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 June 2017 / Revised: 28 July 2017 / Accepted: 12 August 2017 / Published: 17 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Catalysis of Biomass-Derived Molecules)
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Abstract

The production of bio-diesel fuels from carbohydrates is a promising alternative to fossil fuels with regard to the growing severity of the environmental problem and energy crisis. Potential bio-diesel candidates or additives, such as 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-(dimethoxymethyl) furan (HDMF), 2-(dimethoxymethyl)-5-(methoxymethyl) furan (DMMF), and 5-(methoxymethyl)-2-furaldehyde (MMF) could be produced from the alcoholic solutions of both 5-HMF and fructose in the presence of solid acid catalysts. In the present study, a readily prepared, silica, gel-supported nitric acid (SiO2-HNO3) catalyst was found to be exceptionally reactive for the production of HDMF from fructose. A DMSO-methanol biphasic solvent system was developed and HDMF, DMMF, and MMF were observed at 150 °C, with maximum yields of 34%, 34%, and 25%, respectively. Meanwhile, a maximum HDMF yield of 77% was obtained from 5-HMF in methanol. Moreover, a sequential, one-pot, two-step dehydration/acetalization process, involving the dehydration of fructose to 5-HMF in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) at 150 °C, and followed by adding a certain amount of methanol to react with the formed 5-HMF to HDMF at 100 °C, was developed to promote the yield of HDMF. The optimum yield of HDMF reached 70% with the complete conversion of fructose. The reaction mechanisms of dehydration and acetalization have been proposed for the conversion of 5-HMF to HDMF. The two-step design allows for facile catalyst recycling while supplying as a promising method for the production of biodiesel from complex carbohydrates. View Full-Text
Keywords: bio-diesel; silica gel-supported nitric acid; one-pot two-step system bio-diesel; silica gel-supported nitric acid; one-pot two-step system
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Qiu, G.; Wang, X.; Huang, C.; Li, Y.; Chen, B. Facile, One-Pot, Two-Step, Strategy for the Production of Potential Bio-Diesel Candidates from Fructose. Catalysts 2017, 7, 237.

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