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Cancers 2017, 9(8), 105; doi:10.3390/cancers9080105

The Role of Cancer-Derived Exosomes in Tumorigenicity & Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition

1
Department of Urology, Loyola University Medical Center, 2160 S. First Ave., Maywood, IL 60153, USA
2
Cardinal Bernardin Cancer Center, Loyola University Medical Center, 2160 S. First Ave., Maywood, IL 60153, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Joëlle Roche
Received: 31 May 2017 / Revised: 5 August 2017 / Accepted: 5 August 2017 / Published: 10 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) in Cancer)
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Abstract

Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process by which epithelial cells lose their basement membrane interaction and acquire a more migratory, mesenchymal phenotype. EMT has been implicated in cancer cell progression, as cells transform and increase motility and invasiveness, induce angiogenesis, and metastasize. Exosomes are 30–100 nm membrane-bound vesicles that are formed and excreted by all cell types and released into the extracellular environment. Exosomal contents include DNA, mRNA, miRNA, as well as transmembrane- and membrane-bound proteins derived from their host cell contents. Exosomes are involved in intercellular signaling, both by membrane fusion to recipient cells with deposition of exosomal contents into the cytoplasm and by the binding of recipient cell membrane receptors. Recent work has implicated cancer-derived exosomes as an important mediator of intercellular signaling and EMT, with resultant transformation of cancer cells to a more aggressive phenotype, as well as the tropism of metastatic disease in specific cancer types with the establishment of the pre-metastatic niche. View Full-Text
Keywords: epithelial-mesenchymal transition; exosomes; neoplasm metastasis; neovascularization; pathologic; neoplasm invasiveness; intercellular signaling peptides and proteins epithelial-mesenchymal transition; exosomes; neoplasm metastasis; neovascularization; pathologic; neoplasm invasiveness; intercellular signaling peptides and proteins
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Blackwell, R.H.; Foreman, K.E.; Gupta, G.N. The Role of Cancer-Derived Exosomes in Tumorigenicity & Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition. Cancers 2017, 9, 105.

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