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AR-Signaling in Human Malignancies: Prostate Cancer and Beyond

1
Division of Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98109, USA
2
Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA 98109, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Emmanuel S. Antonarakis
Received: 29 November 2016 / Revised: 4 January 2017 / Accepted: 5 January 2017 / Published: 11 January 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue AR Signaling in Human Malignancies: Prostate Cancer and Beyond)
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Abstract

In the 1940s Charles Huggins reported remarkable palliative benefits following surgical castration in men with advanced prostate cancer, and since then the androgen receptor (AR) has remained the main therapeutic target in this disease. Over the past couple of decades, our understanding of AR-signaling biology has dramatically improved, and it has become apparent that the AR can modulate a number of other well-described oncogenic signaling pathways. Not surprisingly, mounting preclinical and epidemiologic data now supports a role for AR-signaling in promoting the growth and progression of several cancers other than prostate, and early phase clinical trials have documented preliminary signs of efficacy when AR-signaling inhibitors are used in several of these malignancies. In this article, we provide an overview of the evidence supporting the use of AR-directed therapies in prostate as well as other cancers, with an emphasis on the rationale for targeting AR-signaling across tumor types. View Full-Text
Keywords: prostate cancer; breast cancer; bladder cancer; renal cell carcinoma; pancreatic cancer; ovarian cancer; hepatocellular cancer; ovarian cancer; endometrial cancer; androgen receptor prostate cancer; breast cancer; bladder cancer; renal cell carcinoma; pancreatic cancer; ovarian cancer; hepatocellular cancer; ovarian cancer; endometrial cancer; androgen receptor
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Schweizer, M.T.; Yu, E.Y. AR-Signaling in Human Malignancies: Prostate Cancer and Beyond. Cancers 2017, 9, 7.

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