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Cancers 2016, 8(3), 36; doi:10.3390/cancers8030036

Different Subsets of T Cells, Memory, Effector Functions, and CAR-T Immunotherapy

Promab Biotechnologies, 2600 Hilltop Drive, Suite 320, Richmond, CA 94803, USA
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Samuel C. Mok
Received: 8 January 2016 / Revised: 7 March 2016 / Accepted: 10 March 2016 / Published: 15 March 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Immunotherapies)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [874 KB, uploaded 16 March 2016]   |  

Abstract

This review is focused on different subsets of T cells: CD4 and CD8, memory and effector functions, and their role in CAR-T therapy––a cellular adoptive immunotherapy with T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptor. The CAR-T cells recognize tumor antigens and induce cytotoxic activities against tumor cells. Recently, differences in T cell functions and the role of memory and effector T cells were shown to be important in CAR-T cell immunotherapy. The CD4+ subsets (Th1, Th2, Th9, Th17, Th22, Treg, and Tfh) and CD8+ memory and effector subsets differ in extra-cellular (CD25, CD45RO, CD45RA, CCR-7, L-Selectin [CD62L], etc.); intracellular markers (FOXP3); epigenetic and genetic programs; and metabolic pathways (catabolic or anabolic); and these differences can be modulated to improve CAR-T therapy. In addition, CD4+ Treg cells suppress the efficacy of CAR-T cell therapy, and different approaches to overcome this suppression are discussed in this review. Thus, next-generation CAR-T immunotherapy can be improved, based on our knowledge of T cell subsets functions, differentiation, proliferation, and signaling pathways to generate more active CAR-T cells against tumors. View Full-Text
Keywords: chimeric antigen receptor (CAR); immunotherapy; cancer; CD4 T cells; CD8 T cells chimeric antigen receptor (CAR); immunotherapy; cancer; CD4 T cells; CD8 T cells
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Golubovskaya, V.; Wu, L. Different Subsets of T Cells, Memory, Effector Functions, and CAR-T Immunotherapy. Cancers 2016, 8, 36.

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