Next Article in Journal
Targeted Therapy in Locally Advanced and Recurrent/Metastatic Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (LA-R/M HNSCC)
Next Article in Special Issue
South Asian Medicinal Compounds as Modulators of Resistance to Chemotherapy and Radiotherapy
Previous Article in Journal
Aberrant Promoter Methylation of the Tumour Suppressor RASSF10 and Its Growth Inhibitory Function in Breast Cancer
Previous Article in Special Issue
Development of a Novel Enzyme-Targeting Radiosensitizer (New KORTUC) Using a Gelatin-Based Hydrogel Instead of a Sodium Hyaluronate
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Cancers 2016, 8(3), 28; doi:10.3390/cancers8030028

Paradigm Shift in Radiation Biology/Radiation Oncology—Exploitation of the “H2O2 Effect” for Radiotherapy Using Low-LET (Linear Energy Transfer) Radiation such as X-rays and High-Energy Electrons

Hyogo Prefectural Kakogawa Medical Center, Kakogawa, Hyogo 675-8555, Japan
Academic Editors: Zhe-Sheng (Jason) Chen and Dong-Hua (Hana) Yang
Received: 8 December 2015 / Revised: 17 February 2016 / Accepted: 22 February 2016 / Published: 25 February 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drug/Radiation Resistance in Cancer Therapy)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2589 KB, uploaded 25 February 2016]   |  

Abstract

Most radiation biologists/radiation oncologists have long accepted the concept that the biologic effects of radiation principally involve damage to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), which is the critical target, as described in “Radiobiology for the Radiologist”, by E.J. Hall and A.J. Giaccia [1]. Although the concepts of direct and indirect effects of radiation are fully applicable to low-LET (linear energy transfer) radioresistant tumor cells/normal tissues such as osteosarcoma cells and chondrocytes, it is believed that radiation-associated damage to DNA does not play a major role in the mechanism of cell death in low-LET radiosensitive tumors/normal tissues such as malignant lymphoma cells and lymphocytes. Hall and Giaccia describe lymphocytes as very radiosensitive, based largely on apoptosis subsequent to irradiation. As described in this review, apoptosis of lymphocytes and lymphoma cells is actually induced by the “hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) effect”, which I propose in this review article for the first time. The mechanism of lymphocyte death via the H2O2 effect represents an ideal model to develop the enhancement method of radiosensitivity for radiation therapy of malignant neoplasms. In terms of imitating the high radiosensitivity of lymphocytes, osteosarcoma cells (representative of low-LET radioresistant cells) might be the ideal model for indicating the conversion of cells from radioresistant to radiosensitive utilizing the H2O2 effect. External beam radiation such as X-rays and high-energy electrons for use in modern radiotherapy are generally produced using a linear accelerator. We theorized that when tumors are irradiated in the presence of H2O2, the activities of anti-oxidative enzymes such as peroxidases and catalase are blocked and oxygen molecules are produced at the same time via the H2O2 effect, resulting in oxidative damage to low-LET radioresistant tumor cells, thereby rendering them highly sensitive to irradiation. In this review, this potential paradigm shift in modern radiation biology/radiation oncology is discussed in detail in terms of overcoming drug/radiation resistance in radiation therapy and/or anti-cancer chemotherapy. View Full-Text
Keywords: hydrogen peroxide; radiosensitizer; sodium hyaluronate; radiotherapy; KORTUC; radiation therapy; H2O2 effect; tumor hypoxia hydrogen peroxide; radiosensitizer; sodium hyaluronate; radiotherapy; KORTUC; radiation therapy; H2O2 effect; tumor hypoxia
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Ogawa, Y. Paradigm Shift in Radiation Biology/Radiation Oncology—Exploitation of the “H2O2 Effect” for Radiotherapy Using Low-LET (Linear Energy Transfer) Radiation such as X-rays and High-Energy Electrons. Cancers 2016, 8, 28.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Cancers EISSN 2072-6694 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top