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Cancers 2014, 6(4), 1953-1985; doi:10.3390/cancers6041953

The Future of Glioblastoma Therapy: Synergism of Standard of Care and Immunotherapy

1
Department of Neurosurgery, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 600 N. Wolfe St., Phipps Building Rm 123, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA
2
Department of Neurosurgery, Stanford University Medical Center, 1201 Welch Rd., P309 MSLS, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 June 2014 / Revised: 5 August 2014 / Accepted: 3 September 2014 / Published: 29 September 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Glioblastoma)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [687 KB, uploaded 29 September 2014]

Abstract

The current standard of care for glioblastoma (GBM) is maximal surgical resection with adjuvant radiotherapy and temozolomide (TMZ). As the 5-year survival with GBM remains at a dismal <10%, novel therapies are needed. Immunotherapies such as the dendritic cell (DC) vaccine, heat shock protein vaccines, and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFRvIII) vaccines have shown encouraging results in clinical trials, and have demonstrated synergistic effects with conventional therapeutics resulting in ongoing phase III trials. Chemoradiation has been shown to have synergistic effects when used in combination with immunotherapy. Cytotoxic ionizing radiation is known to trigger pro-inflammatory signaling cascades and immune activation secondary to cell death, which can then be exploited by immunotherapies. The future of GBM therapeutics will involve finding the place for immunotherapy in the current treatment regimen with a focus on developing strategies. Here, we review current GBM therapy and the evidence for combination of immune checkpoint inhibitors, DC and peptide vaccines with the current standard of care. View Full-Text
Keywords: glioblastoma; temozolomide; vaccine; immunotherapy glioblastoma; temozolomide; vaccine; immunotherapy
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Patel, M.A.; Kim, J.E.; Ruzevick, J.; Li, G.; Lim, M. The Future of Glioblastoma Therapy: Synergism of Standard of Care and Immunotherapy. Cancers 2014, 6, 1953-1985.

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