Cancers 2014, 6(2), 1157-1179; doi:10.3390/cancers6021157
Review

Updates and Controversies in the Rapidly Evolving Field of Lung Cancer Screening, Early Detection, and Chemoprevention

1,2,* email, 1,2,3email, 3,4,5email, 1email and 3,4email
Received: 13 February 2014; in revised form: 25 April 2014 / Accepted: 8 May 2014 / Published: 16 May 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco-related Cancers)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States. Cigarette smoking is a well-recognized risk factor for lung cancer, and a sustained elevation of lung cancer risk persists even after smoking cessation. Despite identifiable risk factors, there has been minimal improvement in mortality for patients with lung cancer primarily stemming from diagnosis at a late stage when there are few effective therapeutic options. Early detection of lung cancer and effective screening of high-risk individuals may help improve lung cancer mortality. While low dose computerized tomography (LDCT) screening of high risk smokers has been shown to reduce lung cancer mortality, the high rates of false positives and potential for over-diagnosis have raised questions on how to best implement lung cancer screening. The rapidly evolving field of lung cancer screening and early-detection biomarkers may ultimately improve the ability to diagnose lung cancer in its early stages, identify smokers at highest-risk for this disease, and target chemoprevention strategies. This review aims to provide an overview of the opportunities and challenges related to lung cancer screening, the field of biomarker development for early lung cancer detection, and the future of lung cancer chemoprevention.
Keywords: lung cancer; screening; early detection; chemoprevention
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kathuria, H.; Gesthalter, Y.; Spira, A.; Brody, J.S.; Steiling, K. Updates and Controversies in the Rapidly Evolving Field of Lung Cancer Screening, Early Detection, and Chemoprevention. Cancers 2014, 6, 1157-1179.

AMA Style

Kathuria H, Gesthalter Y, Spira A, Brody JS, Steiling K. Updates and Controversies in the Rapidly Evolving Field of Lung Cancer Screening, Early Detection, and Chemoprevention. Cancers. 2014; 6(2):1157-1179.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kathuria, Hasmeena; Gesthalter, Yaron; Spira, Avrum; Brody, Jerome S.; Steiling, Katrina. 2014. "Updates and Controversies in the Rapidly Evolving Field of Lung Cancer Screening, Early Detection, and Chemoprevention." Cancers 6, no. 2: 1157-1179.

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