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Cancers 2014, 6(2), 1138-1156; doi:10.3390/cancers6021138
Review

Mechanisms of Cancer Induction by Tobacco-Specific NNK and NNN

1
, 2
 and 2,*
Received: 6 February 2014; in revised form: 13 April 2014 / Accepted: 28 April 2014 / Published: 14 May 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco-related Cancers)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [767 KB, uploaded 14 May 2014]
Abstract: Tobacco use is a major public health problem worldwide. Tobacco-related cancers cause millions of deaths annually. Although several tobacco agents play a role in the development of tumors, the potent effects of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) and N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) are unique. Metabolically activated NNK and NNN induce deleterious mutations in oncogenes and tumor suppression genes by forming DNA adducts, which could be considered as tumor initiation. Meanwhile, the binding of NNK and NNN to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor promotes tumor growth by enhancing and deregulating cell proliferation, survival, migration, and invasion, thereby creating a microenvironment for tumor growth. These two unique aspects of NNK and NNN synergistically induce cancers in tobacco-exposed individuals. This review will discuss various types of tobacco products and tobacco-related cancers, as well as the molecular mechanisms by which nitrosamines, such as NNK and NNN, induce cancer.
Keywords: tobacco; nitrosamines; cancer tobacco; nitrosamines; cancer
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Xue, J.; Yang, S.; Seng, S. Mechanisms of Cancer Induction by Tobacco-Specific NNK and NNN. Cancers 2014, 6, 1138-1156.

AMA Style

Xue J, Yang S, Seng S. Mechanisms of Cancer Induction by Tobacco-Specific NNK and NNN. Cancers. 2014; 6(2):1138-1156.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Xue, Jiaping; Yang, Suping; Seng, Seyha. 2014. "Mechanisms of Cancer Induction by Tobacco-Specific NNK and NNN." Cancers 6, no. 2: 1138-1156.



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