Cancers 2012, 4(4), 969-988; doi:10.3390/cancers4040969
Review

Estrogen Signaling in Lung Cancer: An Opportunity for Novel Therapy

1,2,* email and 1,2email
Received: 4 July 2012; in revised form: 9 August 2012 / Accepted: 10 September 2012 / Published: 25 September 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hormones and Carcinogenesis)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in U.S. and represents a major public health burden. Epidemiologic data have suggested that lung cancer in women may possess different biological characteristics compared to men, as evidenced by a higher proportion of never-smokers among women with lung cancer. Emerging data indicate that female hormones such as estrogen and progesterone play a significant role in lung carcinogenesis. It has been reported that estrogen and progesterone receptors are expressed in lung cancer cell lines as well as in patient-derived tumors. Hormone related risk factors such as hormone replacement therapy have been implicated in lung carcinogenesis and several preclinical studies show activity of anti-estrogen therapy in lung cancer. In this review, we summarize the emerging evidence for the role of reproductive hormones in lung cancer and implications for lung cancer therapy.
Keywords: lung cancer; estrogen; progesterone; aromatase; hormone receptors
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MDPI and ACS Style

Baik, C.S.; Eaton, K.D. Estrogen Signaling in Lung Cancer: An Opportunity for Novel Therapy. Cancers 2012, 4, 969-988.

AMA Style

Baik CS, Eaton KD. Estrogen Signaling in Lung Cancer: An Opportunity for Novel Therapy. Cancers. 2012; 4(4):969-988.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Baik, Christina S.; Eaton, Keith D. 2012. "Estrogen Signaling in Lung Cancer: An Opportunity for Novel Therapy." Cancers 4, no. 4: 969-988.

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