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Estrogen Signaling in Lung Cancer: An Opportunity for Novel Therapy
Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98109, USA
Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA 98109, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 July 2012; in revised form: 9 August 2012 / Accepted: 10 September 2012 / Published: 25 September 2012
Abstract: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in U.S. and represents a major public health burden. Epidemiologic data have suggested that lung cancer in women may possess different biological characteristics compared to men, as evidenced by a higher proportion of never-smokers among women with lung cancer. Emerging data indicate that female hormones such as estrogen and progesterone play a significant role in lung carcinogenesis. It has been reported that estrogen and progesterone receptors are expressed in lung cancer cell lines as well as in patient-derived tumors. Hormone related risk factors such as hormone replacement therapy have been implicated in lung carcinogenesis and several preclinical studies show activity of anti-estrogen therapy in lung cancer. In this review, we summarize the emerging evidence for the role of reproductive hormones in lung cancer and implications for lung cancer therapy.
Keywords: lung cancer; estrogen; progesterone; aromatase; hormone receptors
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MDPI and ACS Style
Baik, C.S.; Eaton, K.D. Estrogen Signaling in Lung Cancer: An Opportunity for Novel Therapy. Cancers 2012, 4, 969-988.
Baik CS, Eaton KD. Estrogen Signaling in Lung Cancer: An Opportunity for Novel Therapy. Cancers. 2012; 4(4):969-988.
Baik, Christina S.; Eaton, Keith D. 2012. "Estrogen Signaling in Lung Cancer: An Opportunity for Novel Therapy." Cancers 4, no. 4: 969-988.